Keshab Prasad Parajuli


Keshab Prasad Parajuli

C. English Class 11 (Notes)

The Selfish Giant- Oscar Wilde

Wilde was an Irish poet, novelist, and playwright, and he wrote this short story for children. It is about a giant who learnt an important lesson about love and sharing, and it holds different meanings for people of different ages. Children enjoy playing in a beautiful garden owned by the Giant, who returns after seven years and builds a wall around his garden to keep the children out. When spring arrives, the garden remains under the spell of winter. The Giant is delighted one day to see that the children have crept into the garden, causing the wintry weather to give a way to glorious spring. However, the cold weather remains in one portion of the garden, where a single solitary boy is unable to reach up and climb a nearby tree.

The Giant strides out into his garden to welcome the children back. However, at the end of the day, the Giant notices that the boy he helped up into the tree has disappeared. The Giant missed him but, he sees the boy in the garden one day. The Giant notices that the boy is wounded, and the boy tells him that they are the wounds of Love, and also tells that he will now take the Giant to Paradise because he let him play in his garden once. When the other children arrive to play, they find the Giant dead.

The garden in this Christian fairy tale symbolizes the Garden of Eden, while the Giant's banishing of the children from his garden echoes God's banishing of Adam and Eve for eating of the forbidden fruit. The little boy whom the Giant helps up into the tree is clearly symbolic of Jesus Christ, who was wounded when he was crucified.

The Oval Portrait -Edgar Allan Poe

Poe is an American writer best known for his poetry and short stories. This is the story of an artist who wants to make a painting of his young wife, but becomes so obsessed with it that he doesn't realize his wife is dying meanwhile. This is a short horror story about the relationship between art and life, through the narrator's encounter with the oval portrait of a young woman in a chateau (castle) in the Appennines (Italian mountain).

Padro the valet brings the injured narrator to an abandoned chateau. The apartment has rich but decaying decorations. The narrator finds a book on the pillow and that provides information about the paintings. The beautiful oval painting is of the painter's wife, who obeys her moody husband without any complain, but rather, continuing to smile for his portrait. The portrait had shut himself and his wife into the tower away from visitors so that he could place all his concentration on his work. When he finished the painting and realized the painting to be the Life itself, his wife had died.

The painter does not cause his wife's death because of hate or any negative emotions. Instead, his passion for his art simply overwhelms him to the paint where he can no longer see his wife except through the lens of his painting. Thus, the story associates art and creativity with decay, ultimately harmful as in this painter's search to immortalize his wife's image. The wife's fate acts as a criticism of the male domination of art.

God Sees the Truth but Waits- Leo Tolstoy

Tolstoy is a Russian writer and a master of realistic fiction. He has achieved world renown as a moral and religious teacher. This story is about the false conviction and imprisonment of a man for a murder he did not commit, and it takes the form of a parable for forgiveness. The major character of this story is a merchant named Aksionov who ignores his wife's warning to go to Nizhy Fair, visits a fellow merchant. Semyonich kills that merchant on the following day, steals his money and keeps the knife into Aksionov's bag. The soldiers arrest Aksionov after finding the knife with blood stain. His wife visits him in jail and faints. Then Aksionov has the faith only upon God so that he transforms into a pious old man after over twenty-six years.

One day, Semyonich also arrives in the same jail of Aksionov, but Semyonich digs a tunnel under his sleeping shelf. Semyonich angrily offers Aksionov escape and threatens to kill him should he tell the authorities about the tunnel. Aksionov says Semyonich has already taken his life, and he shall do as God directs him. Later, Semyonich confesses of his crime and falls to Aksionov's knees and begs for forgiveness, promising to confess to the crimes so that Aksionov will go free. The old man replies that his life is already over and he has nowhere to go. The story ends with Semyonich confessing to the governor. By the time the officials arrange Aksionov's release, Aksionov has already died.

The Wish- Roald Dahl

Dahl is a British novelist, short story writer and screenwriter. This short, sharp, chilling story is about a young body's fantasy in which his carpet is alive with snakes and fire. Using imagery and metaphor, Dahl uses the character of a curiously imaginative young boy to help us reflect on the delicacy of our childhood innocence. This story goes inside the mind of a young child to explore his imagination, and explores the darker side of human nature. The main character pulls a scab painlessly off his knee and flings it away so that it lands on the carpet in the hall of his house. Here, the carpet represents a conflict, causing to suffer for wrong choice. It points out to the lesson that only the right decision and hard labor lead to the right path to fulfill our needs and desires.

The boy decides that the red squares of the carpet are red-hot lumps coals and the black squares snakes, whereas only the yellow squares are safe. According to his rule, the snakes will bite him, and burning coals will burn him, if he touches them. He makes up a story that if he can get to the front door walking only on the yellow parts, he will be rewarded with a puppy. While trying that out, he loses his balance and his hand falls on a black 'snake'. He cries out. Actually, this is a story about self-confidence overcoming fear. The scene before him as witnessed through his emotionally invested mind is vivid and suspenseful. This sinister story ends cryptically with his mother looking for him behind the house.

Civil Peace- Chinua Achebe

Achebe is a Nigerian novelist, poet, professor and critic. This story is set in the aftermath of the Nigerian Civil War. It is about the effects of that war on the people, and the 'civil peace' that followed. Nigeria became an independent nation from the British colony in 1960 and this war began after seven years when the Igbo village tried to separate from Nigeria to form the independent Republic of Biafra. After enduring three years of bloody battles, the Igbo were forced to surrender in 1970. Biafrans suffered a severe famine due to the effect of war. Nearly a million people died of starvation.

Jonathan Iwegbu has survived the Nigerian Civil War so that he considers himself 'extraordinarily lucky'. He repairs his bicycle after returning home to the capital city of Enugu. To explain both his good and bad fortune to himself and others, he often repeats a phrase: 'Nothing puzzles God.' He uses his bicycle to start a taxi service and opening a bar for soldiers.

One day, after turning over rebel currency, Jonathan is given a reward of 20 pounds. That night, a group of thieves knocks on his door demanding money. Finding himself helpless, he gives that money to those thieves. The next morning, he and his family are back at work as the neighbors arrive. Sensing their confusion over his ability to toss off the situation of the night before, Jonathan explains that the reward money cannot compare to what he lost in the war. He chooses to focus on his work in the present rather than regret what has happened.

Two Little Soldiers - Guy de Maupassant

Maupassant is a popular 19th century French writer. This story is about a triangular love with a completely unexpected twist at the end. It shows the compatibility of friendship and romantic love with change, discontent, conflict, betrayal and jealousy.

Luc and Jean are two soldiers who habitually spend their free time on Sundays away from the barracks, out in the countryside. Eventually, their ritual comes to include a bit of innocent ogling of a young village girl who brings her cow out to pasture every week at the same time. As the weeks pass, the girl becomes the topic of conversation for these soldiers as they spend time at the barracks, and the three become fast friends. The girl begins to share their Sunday breakfast meal and appears to devote equal attention to the two recruits. Then, in an uncharacteristic move, Luc seeks leave on a Tuesday, and again the following Thursday. He borrows money from Jean on that day but offers no explanation for his behavior. Jean lends the money.

The following Sunday, when the girl appears with the cow, she immediately rushes up to Luc and they embrace ardently. Jean is hurt because he is left out and does not understand why the girl has suddenly turned all of her attention to Luc. Neither soldier speaks of the incident, but as they return to their barracks they stop momentarily on the bridge over the Seine. Jean leans over toward the water and then suddenly tumbles into the torrent. Luc can do nothing; he watches in anguish as his good friend drowns.

An Astrologer's Day - R.K. Narayan (Rasipuram Krishnaswami Iyer Narayanaswami)

Narayan is an Indian writer known for his works set in the fictional South Indian town of Malgudi. He highlights the social context and everyday life of his characters. Astrology is a form of fortune telling, originated in ancient Babylonia, and practiced in many cultures. This story is a thriller, suspense story describing a day in the life of an astrologer who makes his living by selling cosmic insights to gullible villagers, though he has no knowledge of the cosmos or actual spiritual understanding. The astrologer lays out all of his professional equipment, whereas the narrator notes that he cannot really tell the future. According to the narrator, the astrologer left his small village because he did not want to be an overworked farmer like all of his male ancestors.

One day, the astrologer starts to pack up at the end of the day, but a stranger accosts him, saying that he is not a real astrologer. The astrologer insists on a few incantations and thinks about the man’s situation. The astrologer then says that the man was left for dead after being pushed into a well. This turns out to be true. The stranger, amazed, asks when he should get his revenge on the person who assaulted him. The astrologer then calls his name—Guru Nayak—and says that the man he seeks vengeance against died four months ago.

The astrologer picks up his things and heads home. He is late, and his wife is angry at his tardiness. But then he hands her the large bag of coins that he procured from Nayak. She is thrilled by the good fortune. After a nice dinner, the astrologer confesses to his wife that long ago, when he was a teenager, he was the one who pushed Nayak down the well and left him to die.

Corona Says- Vishnu Singh Rai

Rai was educated in India, Nepal and the UK, and he is known as a poet of human emotions. This poem, written on the theme of the present world crisis Corona and its devastating impact on human life, is a subtle satire on man's conduct and attitude. It views COVID 19 as the byproduct of man's treatment to nature. According to him, human behaviors are responsible for the pandemic and suffering so far.

Since the title of the poem is clear, here we find Corona speaking to humans. It is evident that COVID 19 has claimed the lives of hundreds of thousands of people around the world, but the speaker denies the blame of wrongdoing upon human life and the world economy. According to Corona, it did not come alone but was brought by humans. This is the result of our irrational and irresponsible treatment toward nature. Humans consider themselves to be the sole owners of the entire earth, and neglecting the fact that the earth is a common habitat for all, they always use it according to their selfish wishes.

During the lockdown, when all human activity came to halt, nature regained its old appearance: blue skies, pollution-free atmosphere, etc. It also shows that we are responsible for calamities and misery. In this way, Corona wars that if we don't improve ourselves, more devastating pandemics will come, with more death and destruction. Not only that, but such behavior will eventually take us back to prehistoric times when people used to live in caves and had to hunt food.

A Red, Red Rose - Robert Burns

Burns is considered as the national poet of Scotland. He is best known as a pioneer of the Romantic Movement for his lyrical poetry. This poem is a lyrical ballad that describes the speaker's deep love for his beloved and promises that this love will last longer than human life. The beloved of the speaker is as beautiful as the red rose and as sweet as the music. With the help of the literary devices, the poet has sketched a very vivid and realistic picture of his profound love.

This poem explores the phenomenon of love, very artistically draws a picture of the poet's profound love. It comprises the narrator's attempt to express the depth of his love. Since its publication in 1794, it has gained a lot of popularity across the globe. The speaker compares his beloved with 'a red rose' and 'sweet melody' to intensify his deep feelings for her. He addresses her, proclaiming that his love will stay still until the seas dry up and the rocks melt with the sun because his beloved is so adorable. For some reason, he has to go far away from her, but he promises to return even if he has to travel thousands of miles to win her back. What enchants the reader is the metaphorical representation of love through natural phenomena.

Love and separation are the major themes given in this particular poem. The poem has layered them with using metaphors of natural objects. The poem is primarily concerned with the speaker's love for his significant lover. He adores her beauty and expresses his immeasurable love for her. His love is so deep-rooted that it will stay forever no matter what happens.

All the World's a Stage -William Shakespeare

With the words 'All the World's a Stage' begins the monologue by the character Melancholy Jaques of the play 'As You Like It' written by the English poet, dramatist and actor William Shakespeare. In this poem with the theme that a person is the ultimate loser in the game of life, Shakespeare has compared life with a stage. Every player plays seven roles during his life.

The first stage of a person's life is an infant, when he is helpless in his mother’s arms. In the second role, he is an innocent child innocent, and not willing to learn. For learning, he must lose his childish liberty. We may notice that man keeps on losing one quality and blessing while qualifying for another one. The third stage brings before us the lover who sings woeful ballads for his beloved. In the youthful age when man is full of energy and might, he does everything to please his beloved.

Soldier, the fourth stage arrives swiftly; here man seeks fame though it is temporary and short lived. Fifth role is of a middle aged man with round belly, and ability to understand justice. In sixth age (Pantalone- greediness and high in status), man becomes very weak. His voice is not clear due to loss of teeth. In the last stage, the condition of man becomes very miserable. Now he has lost all his relations, and realized that life is nothing except sheer loss for man though he may boast of the success and achievements.

Who are you, little i? - E.E. Cummings

Edward Estlin Cummings is an American poet, painter, essayist, novelist, and playwright. His poem has unconventional use of capitalization, punctuation, spacing and structure. This poem describes a child looking out a window at the end of the day. It is about nature and the effect it has on the speaker. The speaker recalls a childhood moment closely connected with nature. Perhaps the speaker is the poet.

Although the poem starts with the question 'Who are you, little i?', it is not that the speaker is making an inquiry but, in fact, he is remembering his childhood days. Standing next to the window, he addresses himself in the form of his own inner child of 5 or 6 years. The parentheses in the second and sixth lines are the poet's technique to separate internal thoughts from external ones. Also, the small letter 'i' is used either for self-reflection or referring to himself as a child. The semicolon (;) between 'window and at' suggests two different locations as inside and outside the window such as the boy is inside the window and the sun is setting outside it.

The feelings cause him to recall how he used to enjoy the golden sunset in November when he was a child. Now his adulthood worries have suppressed all his joys and pleasures. He considers the day turning into the night as the gradual passage of time. He welcomes this as a beautiful way. It also reflects the child's excitement at the transformation of the day into night, or the poet's desire to see the end of his life where days refer to the life and night refers to death.

The Gift in Wartime - Tran Mong Tu

Tu moved to the US from Vietnam. She has first-hand experience of the Vietnam War, in which more than two million Vietnamese and fifty-seven thousand Americans died. In this poem, the poet addresses an absent person, who can neither listen nor understand what she is saying. This war poem written in a dramatic monologue form tells us the saddening, gloomy effects of war on the family members who have lost their near and dear ones. Here we find heart wrenching feelings of the speaker who has lost her husband in war.

The first stanza opens with speaker offering roses and a wedding gown in her husband’s grave. In the second stanza, he gives the speaker medals, silver stars, and a badge. In the third stanza, the speaker offers him her youth. The fourth stanza reveals that her husband gives her the smell of blood. For the speaker her husband’s offerings are insignificant to her. In the fifth stanza, the speaker gives him clouds of summer. She sacrifices her cold winters and springs. In the sixth stanza, it is mentioned that her husband remains unmoved by these offerings. In return he gives the speaker lips with no smile, arms without tenderness and eyes with no sight as he is dead.

In the final stanza, the speaker deeply apologizes to her husband about her complain regarding his offerings. She promises to meet him in their next life. She will keep the shrapnel as a token, which will help them know and recognize each other in next life. When we analyze the different images, we feel how lonely and helpless she feels after he has gone.

Sharing Tradition - Frank LaPena

LaPena was a professor of art and former director of Native American Studies at California State University. He was quite interested in the arts and traditions of Native Americans. This essay is about passing on culture and values from generation to generation through oral tradition. According to the author, the oral tradition refers to a form of art of human communication where knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally. This transmission is made through speech or song, folktales, ballads, chants, etc. Oral tradition helps to maintain the values of the culture.

The task of sharing tradition through oral means seems easy to talk and write but it is quite hard to practice. Here, both the elders and young people play a very vital role to maintain and preserve the values of the culture. The role of elders (as speakers) and young people (or followers as listeners) is very important. The knowledge of elders related to cultures, traditions, religions, and values must be listened and followed properly. After the death of senior members, juniors have to fill up their places being responsible, even at sharing tradition to maintain, preserve, or promote cultures and values in their community. This is also a tribute to the former generation, keeping them alive or immortal.

Tradition keeps on moving ahead properly if we are aware of our culture. The lifestyle of elders, their concepts related to life, belief, religion, culture, values etc. made them capable to acquire the ideal position or identity in their lifetime. They kept on sharing their tradition orally for the welfare of humanity, showing the righteous paths to survive ahead. Oral tradition is the educational tool for understanding this natural world. It is the proper way to secure cultural treasures from the past.

How to Live Before You Die -Steve Jobs

Steve was an American business magnate, industrial designer, investor and media proprietor. He was the chairperson, chief executive officer (CEO), and co-founder of Apple Inc. and one of the pioneers of microcomputer technology. This speech adopts a tripartite structure and uses autobiographical anecdotes to communicate a message of resilience and personal integrity. This inspiring speech was delivered at Stanford University 2005 commencement address.

Steve dropped out of Reed College and took calligraphy class. Ten years later when designing the first Macintosh computer he used this knowledge and skills to design the first computer. Much of what he stumbled into by following his curiosity and intuition turned out to be priceless later on. He started Apple with a friend in his parents’ garage when he was 20. As Apple grew, his visions of the future of Apple began to diverge and he got fired by the Board of Directors. He felt rejected, but slowly he began to realize that he still was in love with the work he did. Then he started a company named NeXT, and then Pixar, which turned out to be the most successful animation studio in the world. Ironically Apple bought NeXT, and that is how Steve returned to Apple.

He is inspired by the quote “If you live each day as if it was your last, someday you’ll most certainly be right.” Steve’s talk is very inspiring to think differently, stay hungry (eager), try innovations, and be ready to step out of comfort zone. It’s important that we don’t forget in our everyday life to follow our passions and that we take the time to often look back at our life to make sure that we do what we love.

What I Require from Life- John Burdon Sanderson Haldane

Haldane is a British-Indian scientist as well as a professed socialist, Marxist, atheist and humanist, who became a naturalized Indian citizen. This essay in simple and lucid language reflects socialistic convictions demanding democratic activities in work places. Haldane begins his essay by saying that he has to accept the universe as it is. He cannot require the impossible. He then sets out a few of the things which he personally wants out of life: interesting work, good health, friendship, and freedom. In the second part of the essay, he relates his personal requirements to his hopes for the rest of humanity, assuming himself to be a fairly typical specimen. For instance, he assumes other people also want to work and says that he is against capitalism because, in times of economic depression, it inevitably leads to unemployment.

Haldane's style is typically straightforward and vigorous. As a science popularize, he is accustomed to writing about complex matters in a way that any reader can understand. Here, when writing on a nontechnical subject, he retains this simplicity, with short, forceful, declarative sentences and clear explanations. His subject at first appears to be personal and his mode of writing descriptive. However, in the second part of his essay, it becomes clear that he is putting forward a political argument. Freedom, for instance, is not merely a personal preference of Haldane's but a universal requirement. This means that society should be structured in such a way as to maximize freedom for everyone. His viewpoint is that of a social critic, setting forth a general program of the principles that should underlie a civilized society.

What is Poverty? – Jo Goodwin Parker

Parker is an American writer to give the vivid description of the society and social life. This essay reveals in graphic detail of the hard choices she was forced to make an ever-losing battle to preserve the health of her three children. This essay is a realistic account of the shame, humiliation and outrage of being poor. She stresses on the point that poverty is more than a picture in a newspaper. It is the stench, the squalor (dirty and unpleasant) and the ugliness of living without hope. She defines poverty as,

  • getting up every morning from a dirty mattress
  • living in a never-ending smell
  • being tired due to poor diet and no medical treatment
  • being unable to work leaving children uncared
  • looking much older without proper body care
  • staying up all night in winter or summer
  • asking and waiting for help
  • remembering the past
  • looking into a dark future and insecurity

The essayist wants the society to remain silent if it cannot help the poor. The really poor people have inferiority complex due to the economic factor. She uses metaphor e.g. acid, chisel etc. to explain and redefine poverty so that the abstract ideas can easily be understood.

Scientific Research is a Token of Humankind's Survival' - Vladimir Keilis-Borok

Vladimir is a Russian mathematical geophysicist and seismologist. In this essay, he says about his profession as a scientist and views that science is the humankinds' indispensable guardian and caretaker. He has presented the importance of science and its inventions for the welfare of humankind. There is discussion about how scientists across the globe rise above their national identities to find solutions for common problems of nations, although scientists get low earnings comparatively. According to the writer, science is an exciting adventure where the major reward comes from the discovery itself, following honors and promotions.

Sharing about his experience during the cold war, the writer says that during 1960, while he was doing his research of seismic waves in capital city Moscow, he was summoned by the President of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The President showed him a letter from Geneva in relation to a meeting about nuclear weapons. America, Russia and England as the three nuclear powers were willing to come to an agreement putting a ban on the new nuclear weapons test. The technical experts were to solve the problem of detecting any of such underground testing. It is the only science that could differentiate between the tremors caused by nuclear explosions and natural earthquakes.

Knowledge of basic science always supports people of different sectors. Scientific research is a token of humankind's survival. Science should be used humanly without any bad intentions. It is science that can give us new sources of energy, new mineral deposits, and efficient defense from terrorism. The hope of science for the survival of mankind has larger significance.

Trifles- Susan Glaspell

Glaspell is an American playwright, novelist, journalist and actress. Her works typically explore contemporary social issues, such as gender, ethics, and dissent, while featuring deep, sympathetic characters. Her first play 'Trifles' is based on the murder trial she has covered as a young reporter. It revolves around murder investigation providing a perspective about the status of women in contemporary American society reflecting the male mentality as the dominant gender. 'Trifles' chronicles the day after Mrs. Wright is arrested on suspicion of murdering her husband. Although Mrs. Wright never appears onstage, the audience learns about her from the perspective of her neighbors and their reactions to items they find inside the Wrights' home.

This play begins with two women and three men walking into the Wright’s farmhouse that is now abandoned. Everywhere you look, there is unfinished business. A loaf of bread and dirty dishes are over the counter. It is obvious that someone hurriedly left the place or was unexpectedly taken from the place. An investigation is to begin on the murder of John Wright apparently through strangulation with a rope. The primary suspect of this horrendous crime is his wife. Sheriff Peters, the county attorney, and Mr. Hale, a nearby farmer, are the ones in charge of the investigation. They ransack the house for any clues. However, the real investigators turn out to be Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale.

The male investigators constantly poke fun at the women for showing too much concern for feminine things, such as Mrs. Wright’s incomplete quilt. These ladies came across a pet canary owned by Mrs. Wright. Its wrung neck led them to the uncovering of the mystery. Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale immediately knew that the cruel Mr. Wright broke the Canary’s neck. What’s more, they also discovered that after many years of emotional abuse and neglect, Mrs. Wright retaliated on her husband. She had decided to offer him a taste of his own bitter medicine by doing unto him what he did to her pet canary.

The play culminates with the ladies concealing the canary from the male investigators. This effectively denied them evidence of motive needed to prosecute Mrs. Wright. Eventually, the events leave a lot of questions about justice for women and the oppressed. This play makes one ponder on the points including the role of women, domestic abuse, women's rights, exploitation, symbols, irony, suspense, conflict, and gender differences.

A Sunny Morning- Serafin and Joaquin Alvarez Quintero

This one-act play is a light romantic comedy written by two Spanish dramatists, popularly known as the Golden Boys of the Madrid theatre. It narrates the reunion of two ex-lovers in their seventies meeting at a park on a sunny morning in Madrid. According to the drama, they were passionate lovers in their youth, but torn apart by the cruelty of fate.

When the play begins, we find the old lady named Dona Laura entering the park with her maid named Petra. She sits down on a bench and starts feeding breadcrumbs to the birds. Next is Don Gonzalo entering the park with his servant Juanito, and he grumbles about the people's act of taking others' seat. He keeps looking for a bench but can't find one for him. He scares away the birds and annoys Dona Laura. He shares her bench but she refers to him as an ill-natured man. Don Gonzalo starts reading his book. They keep on using pinching words against each other. Don Gonzalo takes out his snuffbox and they both take the snuff and sneeze three times. They establish a friendly relationship after that.

Don Gonzalo starts reading out loud, and then Dona Laura joins. They even talk about their eyesight. They talk about various cities, places, travel and people they have met and things they have done. They realize that they are former lovers but both of them hide their identities and start telling their stories with fake identities, even of their own deaths. Actually, Dona Laura was Laura Llorente and called 'The Silver Maiden' who married two years after Don Gonzalo ran off with a ballet dancer. Finally, they make a plan to come back and meet the next day if it is a sunny morning. They join their servants and leave.

In conclusion, they know that both of them had held the other in high esteem and both of them had fallen deeply in love. That is why, when they realize that they are the same old lovers of Maricela, they are shocked to realize how much both of them had changed. They do not disclose their identity but tell terrible lies to conceal it.

Refund - Fritz Karinthy

Hungarian satirical writer Fritz writes about a man who goes back to his former school and demands a refund of the fees he had paid eighteen years ago, claiming that he had learnt nothing useful at school and he is now good-for-nothing. The play 'Refund' brings out the extraordinary sense of parody, word play, as it is full of humor which deals with an unusually absurd situation.

Wasserkopf unexpectedly arrives at his old school and demands a refund of tuition fees. The Principal asks him to wait and calls an immediate meeting of the teachers. They discuss the matter seriously and decide to take his examination. Wasserkopf faces all the teachers one-by-one. He calls them loafers to irritate them. He calls them by rude names and gives silly answers, but the teachers accept his answers positively. He is given excellent in patriarchal manners, gentlemanliness, courtesy, physical culture, alertness, perseverance, logic and ambition.

He faces History master at first with a very simple question "How long did the 'Thirty years' War last?" He answers wrongly as 'Seven meters'. Next, the Physics master asks about optical illusions. In reply, Wasserkopf calls the master an ass, but that is accepted as the correct answer. The Geography master asks him to say the same name of the capital of the German province of Brunswick. Wasserkopf answers that the answer is "Same' and the masters claim it as right answer.

The Mathematics master then asks a meaningless question about the circumference of a 109 sided polyhedron. Even the data provided for the calculation is irrelevant. Wasserkopf says that the answer is 2629 litres. The master becomes angry saying that his answer is wrong in an easy question. Then the master asks Wasserkopf to calculate the amount of the fees to be refunded. He refers to it as a tough question. Wasserkopf calculates the total amount and answers exactly. Finally he is proved excellent in the entire subject and they throw him out without allowing him to say anything further.

C. English 11 Model Questions- Answers: 

1. A. Choose the best answer. (5) a. The word ‘announce’ in the 7th line means: ii. make a formal statement about a fact.

b. The word ‘fresh’ in the phrase ‘fresh measurement’ in the second paragraph means:

iii. not previously done, new or different.

c. The word ‘accomplishment’ in the 22nd line means: 

iii. something that has been achieved successfully.

d. The word ‘shrink’ in the 29th line is opposite in meaning to: ii. contract

e. The word ‘approximately’ in line 30 means: ii. nearly 

B. Complete the following sentences in NOT MORE THAN FOUR WORDS. (5)

a. Nepal and China previously had different views about adding the snow cap on top to the height of Mt. Everest.

b. Surveyors from both Nepal and China had worked together to come up with the same view on the new height of Mt. Everest. 

c. China’s earlier official measurement of 8844.43m was based on the measurement done in its rock height.

d. The team leader of Nepal’s surveyors lost his toe during the installment of height-measuring equipment on the top.

e. Some geologists also had their view that the change in tectonic plates under Mt. Everest may have increased its height.

C. Answer the following questions. (5)

a. They agreed on adding the snow cap on top of Mt. Everest while measuring its height.

b. New measurement was necessary for the mutual agreement on the height of Mt. Everest.

c. The sentence includes ‘... go for a fresh measurement to set the record...’

d. That was to minimize possible errors due to sunlight in the day time.

e. An avalanche covered such parts during the great earthquake.

2. Write short answers to the following questions. (10)

a. Flowers are the most important symbols for expressing emotions, sentiments, and love. The speaker is deeply impressed by the children and hence he compares them with the most beautiful flowers. Through those children, he felt heaven in his surroundings.

b. Aksionov had met a merchant on his way and they stayed in the same inn for the night. Next morning, finding the merchant killed, the police searched Aksionov’s luggage and drew a blood-stained knife. These evidences were enough to prove Aksionov guilty of murder, and the same circumstances led to his imprisonment.

c. Tran Mong Tu employs verbal irony in this poem, which is when words mean the oppoistie of their intended meaning. When she talks about the ‘gift’ in wartime, she is speaking not of a real gift but of grief and loss. A grave and shrapnel as tokens of remembrance show the speaker’s sad attitude toward war.

d. Jo Goodwin Parker’s essay is explicitly explaining her personal experience of rural poverty. She explains her story from childhood to adulthood. Parker’s struggles are overwhelming. Every sentence has the evidence of her daily struggle. From her underwear to living arrangements, and everything in between, Parker resides in poverty. 

e. Don Gonzalo was annoyed with Laura as she questioned why he had used his handkerchief to brush his shoes and numerically asked whether he would use a shoe brush as a kerchief. Moreover, when he wished her, she did not wish him back. Laura was annoyed with Gonzalo because he had scared the pigeons fly away.

3. Write long answers to the following questions. (10)

a. ‘Do what you love’ is an age-old advice. But Steve Jobs advocates the opposite approach - ‘The only way to do great work is to love what you do.’ I agree with the idea of loving the roles and responsibilities coming on my way. 

Most commonly, love refers to a feeling of strong attraction and emotional attachment. Intimacy, passion and commitment are core components of love, and these are the qualities necessary for brilliance in any working hands. It is the magical touch of love that generates creativity in the art of handling any business. Ultimately, such a perfect performance offers contentment, gratification or pride, and that sense of achievement is the real sign of a great work.

b. With the words 'All the World's a Stage' begins the monologue by the character Melancholy Jaques of the play 'As You Like It' written by the English poet, dramatist and actor William Shakespeare. In this poem with the theme that a person is the ultimate loser in the game of life,

Shakespeare has compared life with a stage. Every player plays seven roles during his life. The first stage is that of an infant when he is helpless in his mother’s arms. In the second role, he is a school going child. The third stage brings before us the lover who sings woeful ballads for his beloved. Soldier, the fourth stage arrives swiftly; here man seeks fame though it is temporary and short lived. Fifth role is of a middle aged man. He has round belly. In sixth age, man becomes very weak. In the last stage, the condition of man becomes very miserable. At this stage, man feels that life is nothing except sheer loss for man though he may boast of the success and achievements he has got in his past life. Shakespeare wishes to make us realise that the short life we spend in this world is not worth it if we have a close observation of it. Life is nothing more than a shadow.

4. COVID Crisis in Nepal (7)

Nepal could not remain unaffected by the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome from 2019. Since the first case confirmed on a 31-year-old student returned to Kathmandu from Wuhan of China, the Ministry of Health and Population has already confirmed thousands of cases, recoveries, and hundreds of deaths in the country. The viral disease has been detected in all provinces and districts of Nepal. The given bar-graph shows the age-wise distribution of the total cases of COVID-19 infection in Nepal in about a year from January 2020.

The pandemic has shown a markedly low proportion of cases among the children below the age of 10. Even the population below 20 is comparatively less affected, may be for the reason of having lower susceptibility to infection, lower propensity to show clinical symptoms or else. Similar is the scenario of statistical data of people above 60 years of age. The maximum number of cases are in the age group between 20 to 40 and there are more females than males having infected so far.

This graph presents that there are more than 140,000 cases of COVID-19 infection in the age group of 20 to 40 whereas the number of infected cases is almost half in people between the age of 40 to 60. There are fewer than 5,000 cases among the people over 80 whereas the number is slightly more than 15,000 in the age group of 60 to 80. I think, this kind of analysis upon the age structure is significant for predicting the threshold at which health care and precaution are particularly demanding. Apparently, the school children and senior citizens are safer than the working population exposed to the market.

5. Email (8)

Date: April 17, 2021

Subject: Invitation for the first meeting

Dear Sir,

Next week, our school is organizing the ‘Sports Week’ and I am writing this email to invite you as a member into the first meeting of its organizing committee. This meeting is very important indeed for its responsibility of conducting the varieties of events in the best possible manner.

Our school has been performing the best in Sports for many years and we have a lot of students interested to participate in different activities of games and sports. Last year, our students won the National Awards in School Level Sports Competitions. We need to keep up with such a spirit. As a teacher, you know the importance of such enthusiasm and involvement from school life.

For your kind information, this meeting shall discuss and decide on the special agendas of Sports Week such as events, dates, times, event-managers, necessary materials, awards, guests, banners and awards. Of course, we shall share our responsibilities and collaborate effectively for the success of assigned program. We shall not miss anything and shall keep the meeting short!

Please, attend the meeting at 10 am sharp on April 18, 2021 at Sports Hall of our school. 

Sincerely Yours

Vidit Parajuli


Organizing Committee for the Sports Week 2021

6. Smartphones: Pros and Cons (10)

A smartphone is so much more than a regular phone. This phone contains an individual’s entire life, for example, personal history, transactions, routine, doubts, private information, memories, thoughts, and so on. While it’s great to have all your important information and insights compressed in your hand, it can also be of a great disadvantage to you, your safety, and your health. So, a smartphone does have both its pros and cons.

A smartphone gives us access to almost all E-commerce platforms. We can now buy or sell anything from food, clothes, groceries, vehicles, household items, properties, etc. From streaming movies and videos to reading books, playing heavy graphical games, listening to the latest music, and scrolling through Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat, a smartphone can keep you occupied and entertained on any given day. With countless communication apps and maps, talking, visiting, and staying in touch with friends and families who stay miles away is also much easier. Gone are the days where you wrote a letter, posted it, and waited days or even months to get a reply. Several top-notch schools and universities have extended their courses to students from different parts of the world through online classes. School children can find many apps that make learning easy through fun and innovative ways. Education is now become much easier to acquire and a lot of students finish graduation or post-graduation while still being able to work.

As efficient as it is, a smartphone is technically useless without access to the internet. None of the apps work without the internet. A good data connection or a Wifi connection is considered a luxury. The irony of the smartphone is that when it was theoretically made to omit distance between people, it has resulted in us becoming hostile and inconsiderate of others. Everyone has their own smartphones and all we see now are large groups of people with no interaction amongst themselves. With our credit/debit cards, passwords, bank statements, and other important information saved on the phone, we are more prone to online frauds and cybercrimes like hacking and invasion of personal files. Loss of phone may also lead to loss of personal information. 

Even with the above-stated disadvantages, the advantages of a smartphone weigh more. It is proven to be a great investment. 

7. Do as indicated in brackets and rewrite the sentences. (10)

a. The good boy behaved well. (Underline the adverb.)

b. Many of the houses in this neighborhood don’t have garages. 

c. We insist on punctuality in this office.

d. It must be Anton’s car. I saw him driving the car yesterday.

e. She has written three books and she is working on another one.

f. I need to stop doing my homework late at night. I keep making terrible mistakes.

g. The minister stood still until the request to take her seat.

h. Marie Curie is the woman who discovered radium.

i. She offered to help me.

j. I hate being laughed at.

8. Do as instructed. (5)

a. The art of producing beautiful writing with a special pen or brush is called calligraphy. What word class does the underlined word in the sentence belong to? = Adjective

b. Dictionary arrangement:

Chancellor, chanting, chirruping, chivalry, chopper

c. He burnt his fingers by interfering in his neighbor’s affair. = He got himself into trouble.

d. The prefix ‘under’ in the word ‘underestimate’ means ‘below’

e. Correct sentence: Kelsey said, “I want to go to Aunt Joy’s for Thanksgiving.”

The End

Optional English Class 11

Historical Survey of English Language and Literature

The earliest English literature was oral, in the forms of songs, tales, and legends.

Old English language has the link with Christianization of the Pagan English tribes, influenced by Roman culture and language.

Old English literature (spoken from about 450 to 1066 BC) is also known as Anglo-Saxon after the Germanic tribes- Angles, Saxons, and Jutes. It consists of epic poetry, songs, sermons, translations of the Bible, different chronicles, and riddles. E.g. Beowulf, The Wanderer, The Seafarer, Deor etc.

Features of Old English Literature:

1. Pagan origin- influence of the location and ancient context

2. Religious influence- E.g. Genesis A, Genesis B, Exodus, Daniel, Christ and Satan, etc.

3. Anonymous origin- Caedmon, Cynewulf, Aelfric, King Alfred, and others appear later.

4. Imitative quality- translated, adapted from Latin

5. Heroic theme- battles, conflict, torture, etc. faced by victorious hero

6. Diverse subject matter- religion, Chronicles of King Alfred, rustic life of the people, narratives etc.

Development of different genres in Anglo-Saxon Period:

1. Poetry- Mostly, the shepherds used to create and recite pastoral poems. Beowulf is an example of heroic epic, glorifying a real or imaginary hero and trying to teach the values of bravery and generosity.

The greatest old English poem is Beowulf of the 7th century. This first English epic consists of about three thousand lines telling the story of the adventures of a brave hero named Beowulf. Hrothgar is the king of the Danes and Beowulf comes from Southern Sweden (Geatland) to help him in trouble. Hrothgar’s great hall, Heorot is visited at night by a terrible creature, Grendel, which lives in a lake and comes to kill and eat Hrothgar’s men. Some unknown poet wrote the tales of wars and deeds of bravery of Beowulf who frees the land of the Danes from Grendel. In revenge, the monster’s mother attacks again but, Beowulf follows her to her den and kills her there. Then, he becomes the king of the Geats and rules for half a century. He has to defend his country against a fire-breathing dragon. He kills the animal but is fatally wounded in the fight and dies. The poem ends with a sorrowful description of Beowulf’s funeral fire.

Cynewulf's four poems- Juliana, The Fates of The Apostle, Christ, and Elene

Genesis A has little more than old history taken from the Bible but Genesis B has description of God’s punishment of Satan. Exodus describes how the Israelites left Egypt. Christ and Satan deals with events in Christ’s life. The Dream of The Rood is one of the best poems of the period. It is about Christ's cross. It is said that an angel appeared to Caedmon in a dream and told him to sing God’s praise. The Battle of Maldon is a poem about the battle against the Danes during the last decade of the 10th century. Andreas, Guthlac, Deor’s Complaint, The Husband’s Message, The Wanderer, The Wife’s Complaint, etc. are some other old English poems.

2. Prose- There were some legal documents (oldest laws of the 7th century) written in verse with the style of prose. King Alfred of Wessex translated several Latin books into Old English. One of the most important of these works was the Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation by a monk known as the Venerable Bede. Another monk named Aelfric wrote a series of homilies (short moral/religious essays) and Lives of Saints. From about 892 to 1154, a number of authors contributed to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a record of current events in England. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is the first important prose-work in English literature. Aelfric wrote mainly religious prose such as Homilies and Lives of Saints.

Note: Although it cannot be understood without special training of the old script, Old English language had strong verbs and use of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives in their oral and written practice. Basic use of present and past tenses could be found. The writers started the use of metaphors. Actually Beowulf gives an interesting picture of life in those old days. They had a hard life on land and sea. Major focus of poetry was alliteration (words beginning with the same sound). A plain statement has been changed into something more colorful.

Middle English Literature

After the Norman Conquest (William, duke of Normandy, defeated King Harold in the battle of Hastings) in 1066, there was great change in English literature. The French language was used as the language of the upper class, courts, schools, and literature. Anglo-Norman Period had French-dialect and Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400) rose in the second half of the fourteenth century as the greatest poet of the Middle English Literature. Chaucer is also called the father of English poetry as it is much easier to read his poems than the earlier poems. He is best remembered for “The Canterbury Tales”. He was born in a merchant family in London and was appointed to the service of Duke of Clarence and later on went to foreign countries in diplomatic missions.

Chaucer was a well-educated man with knowledge of Latin, French and Italian languages. He visited different places and people and established himself as a highly sophisticated intellectual writer who incorporated into his poetry the major philosophical and artistic concerns of his age. Medieval mind was related to the religion and collective ideas. Medieval period is also called dark Christian Age.

During the Middle Age, people often went on pilgrimages to visit the shrines and cathedrals dedicated to the memory of Christian saints. In England, the most popular of these pleasant holiday excursions was to be the tomb of Saint Thomas Backet in Canterbury, 55 miles southeast of London. The saint had been murdered there before the high alter in 1170. A good place for pilgrims to spend the first night was at Tabard Inn, across the Thames from London in Southwark.

The Canterbury Tales has altogether about 17000 lines. To pass the time on the difficult journey, Harry Bailly, host of the Tabard Inn suggests that each pilgrim shall tell two stories on the way to Canterbury and tow on the return trip. Chaucer planned to present 31 pilgrims in this story and they were chosen from all the classes of the society, of both sexes, and of all the ranks. The company of characters include a knight and his young son, a squire (country gentleman), the knight’s servant (Yeoman), a Prioress (head of a nunnery), priests, a monk, a friar (religious member), a merchant, a clerk of Oxford, a lawyer, a weaver, a dyer, a cook, a sailor, a doctor of physics, Alice, the wife of Bath, a poor parson (Parish priest) and his brother, a plowman, a miller etc. Chaucer wanted to write more than a hundred stories but unfortunately, he had finished only twenty and half-finished only two.

The knight’s tale is a long classical romance whereas the miller’s tale is about a carpenter, the reeve’s about a miller and the cook’s about an idle apprentice (person learning craft). The lawyer tells the virtue story of a daughter of a Roman Emperor and the elegant (stylish) Prioress tells a miracle tale about a choir (singer) boy who continued to sing after he had been murdered. The monk begins a series of short stories about men who fell from high estate to the depths of misery. One of the most enjoyable characters, for example, is the wife of Bath, who introduces her story with a long and very funny prologue (introduction). She has had five husbands, one after another. Her story is a charming fairy tale about one of King Arthur’s knights who was required to find out within a year what it is that woman desire that most. An ugly old witch gives him the answer (i.e. to rule) but only on his agreement to marry her. At the marriage she becomes young again. The merchant tells the bitter tale of a young wife who deceived her old, blind husband. The squire begins a courtly romance about a princess who had a magic ring that enabled her to understand the language of birds.

The pilgrims approach Canterbury on the fourth day. There is no description of return journey. Many critics believe this one-way pilgrimage as a journey of human life to heaven. Love, marriage and domestic harmony are the most common themes in the tales.

Of Chaucer’s other poems, the most important are Troylus and Cryseyde and The Legend of Good Women. John Gower was a contemporary writer of Chaucer. He was a moralist and he has written Speculum Meditantis, Vox Clamantis and Confessio Amantis. William Langland wrote a poem “The Vision of Piers the Plowman” which provides a glimpse of English life during the 1300’s. It describes the sorrows of the poor. The characters in the poem are not as real as Chaucer’s. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight tells of the adventures of one of King Arthur's knights in a struggle against an enemy with magic powers as well as great strength and cunning. Pearl is the name of the poet's daughter, who died at the age of two; but he is comforted when, in a dream, he sees her in heaven. Patience is the story of Jonah, who was thrown into the sea and carried to heaven by a sea creature.

An important Middle English prose work, Morte D’Arthur, was written by Sir Thomas Malory. Many tales gathered round Arthur and his knights. One of the main subjects was the search for the cup used by Christ at the Last Supper. Another subject was Arthur’s battle against his enemies, including the Romans. Professor of Oxford, John Wyclif translated the Bible and popularized it.

The first English plays told religious stories and were performed in or near the churches. The sources of the story of such miracle or mystery plays were folk stories and the Bible. Especially they were acted to make the people know about the dignity of God and religion. Miracle Plays were in four main groups, according to the city where they were acted: Chester, Coventry, York and Wakefield. They were acted by people of the town on a kind of stage on wheels called pageant. This was moved to different parts of the town. Although the Miracles were serious and religious in intention, English comedy was born in them.

Morality Plays of Middle Period include the characters that were personified with different human virtues and qualities like beauty, strength, love, peace etc. The plays presented moral truths in a new and effective way. One of the best known 15th century moralities is Everyman. It is the story of the end of Everyman’s life. When Everyman has to go to face Death, his friends (Beauty, Knowledge and Strength) leave him but only Good Deeds goes with him.

Interludes were played between the acts of long Moralities, perhaps in the middle of meals. They were short plays which introduced the real characters. They were humorous, including very good songs and were acted at feasts and festivals to entertain in courts, churches, colleges or rich men’s houses. Some of the famous interludes are The Four P’s, Joham Johan, The World and The Child etc. These plays were written with the mixture of prose and poetry.

Features of Middle English Literature:

1. Use of rhyme in poetry- Ending two or more verse lines with the same sounds

2. Religious influence- Most of the prose writing had religious influence.

3. The emergence of antireligious tone in writing- Some writers like John Wycliffe

4. Beginning of the dramas- e.g. morality, miracle and interludes

5. Printed texts- After the invention of Caxton's printing press in 1476, books were cheaper.

Note: Sir Thomas More was the first person to write of a 'utopia', a word used to describe a perfect imaginary world. Richard Rolle wrote 'The Form of Perfect Living' which is full of religious teachings. John Wycliffe, a priest, attacked many of the religious ideas of his time. He translated Bible in English for the common people. After he was dead and buried, his bones were dug up again and thrown into the River Avon. Sir Thomas Malory, a violent poet, wrote Morte D'Arthur (Death of Arthur). Guinevere, the wife of King Arthur falls in love with Lancelot. Their affair is results into Arthur's death. It also contains Arthur's search for the cup, known as The Holy Grail, used by the Christ at the Last Supper.


Renaissance (a French word meaning rebirth, revival or re-awakening) is the name commonly applied to the period of European history following the middle ages. It is usually said to have begun in Italy in the late 14th century and to have continued, both in Italy and other countries of Western Europe. This development in arts of painting, sculpture, architecture and literature reached to England in the 16th century and did not have its flowering until the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods. John Milton is described as the last great Renaissance poet.

The reign of Henry VI (1422-1471) was marked as the barren age in the history of English literature.

(Henry VI- Edward IV- Edward V- Richard III- Henry VII- Henry VIII- Edward VI- Mary I- Philip- Elizabeth I- James I- Charles I- Cromwell- Charles II- James II- Mary II- William III- Anne- George I- George II- George III- George IV- William IV- Victoria- Edward VII- George V- Edward VIII- George VI- Elizabeth II)

Hundred Years' War (1337-1453) - intermittent struggle between England and France

Wars of Roses (1455-1487) - for control of the throne of England between red and white roses

The English Reformation took place in 16th century (Tudor Period) when the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.

Features of Renaissance literature:

1. Revival of learning- After the political stability, a trend of reading ancient texts and culture started in the educated circle. They learnt even from the Greek literature and culture.

2. Spirit of romance- The romantic quest was for the remote, the wonderful and the beautiful.

3. Religious tolerance- Both the Catholics and the Protestants (advocated by Martin Luther, a German professor) started working together.

4. The age of revival of drama- Dramas shifted from a religious tone to everyday activities.

5. Age of social stability and development- Establishing towns, offering employment, and welfare to the needy, changed the societies.

6. Age of rapid development of prose- Prose reached to its finest position in this period.

7. Age of nationalism- The patriotic feeling of the English people could be seen in this period.

Elizabethan Age: The term Elizabethan is often used loosely to refer to the late 16th and the early 17th centuries. This was a time of rapid development in English commerce, maritime power and nationalistic feelings. It was a great age of English literature- the age of Sir Philip Sidney, Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, William Shakespeare, Sir Walter Raleigh, Francis Bacon, Ben Jonson and many other extraordinary writers of prose and of dramatic, lyric and narrative poetry. Sir Thomas Wyatt first brought the sonnet (14 line poem) to England whereas Henry Howard, the Earl of Surrey wrote the first blank verse in English.

Edmund Spenser- This Elizabethan poet wrote “The Shepherd’s Calendar”. It was poetry in 12 books, one for each month of the year. The poems are unequal. Poems for April and November are good. They take the form of discussions between shepherds and therefore pastorals. There are various subjects such as praise of Queen Elizabeth, discussion about religion, the sad death of a girl and so on. Spenser’s greatest work was “The Faerie Queene” planned in 12 books but wrote in little more than 6. The Queene is either Queen Elizabeth or Glory as a person. There are 12 knights representing different virtues and King Arthur is gentlemanliness. Spenser expressed joy of his own marriage in a book called Epithalamion.

Francis Bacon- The father of the English essay, Francis Bacon was an English philosopher, essayist, jurist and statesman of the Elizabethan Age. His prose is important. His “Essays” especially are popular, for the short, sharp and effective sentences as well as distinct style. Some of the best-known sayings in English come from his books. For example;

Men fear death as children fear to go in the dark.

All colors will agree in the dark.

Revenge is a kind of wild justice.

He wrote A History of Henry VII, The Advancement of Learning, The New Atlantis etc. The Advancement of Learning considers the different ways of advancing knowledge and divisions of knowledge, such as poetry and history. The New Atlantis contains social ideas in the form of a story of a journey to an imaginary island, Bensalem, in the Pacific Ocean. He wrote several other books in English and Latin.

Ben Jonson- Ben Jonson is the father of English literary criticism. His critical ideas appear elsewhere. Timber or Discoveries by the dramatist Jonson, is a collection of notes and ideas on various subjects. Until he wrote this book, nothing had appeared to make clear the true work of a critic, his aims and limitations. Jonson says that a critic ought to judge a work as a whole, and that the critic himself must have some poetic abilities.

Christopher Marlowe- The first great dramatist of the time was Christopher Marlowe. His first tragedy, Tamburlaine the Great is in two parts. The first part deals with the rise to power of Tamburlaine, a shepherd and a robber. His terrible ambition drives him ever onwards to more power and more cruelty. His armies conquer Bajazet, ruler of Turkey, whom Tamburlaine takes from place to place in a cage, like a wild animal. In the second part, Tamburlaine is pulled to Babylon in a carriage. It is drawn by two kings, whom he whips and curses when they do not go fast enough. When they get tired, they are taken away to be hanged, then other two spare kings have to pull the carriage. Tamburlaine drives on to Babylon, and on arrival gives orders for all the people there to be drowned. His life is violent in other ways. He cuts an arm to show his son that a wound is unimportant. He shouts for a map and cries, “let me see how much is left for me to conquer the entire world.”

Marlowe’s “The Jew of Malta” is again often violent. In it, the governor of Malta taxes the Jews there, but Barabas, a rich Jew, refuses to pay. His money and house are therefore taken from him and in revenge he begins a life of violence. He poisons his own daughter, Abigial, and causes her lover to die too. He helps the Turks when they attack Malta, and so they make him governor; but he decides to kill all the Turkish officers. He arranges that the floor of a big room can be made to fall suddenly, and then invites them to a meal in it. As the secret is revealed, he himself is thrown down below the floor into a vessel of boiling water.

Another play named Dr. Faustus is based on the well known story of a man who sold his soul to the devil so as to have power and the riches in the life. In “Edward the Second” Marlowe deals with English history. Certainly, his writing set an example for other dramatists in the great Elizabethan age. Marlowe was killed in a quarrel at a Thames-side inn before he was thirty years of age.

William Shakespeare (1564-1616 AD) - Though the greatest dramatist, Shakespeare is equally famous for his sonnets. National poet of England or Bard (poet) of Avon, who wrote about 38 plays, and 154 sonnets, was born and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had 3 children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and Judith. Between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, and writer. He retired to Stratford around 1613, where he died three years later.

His earliest work is probably seen in certain historical plays. As the play “Richard II” begins, King Richard exiles his cousin Bolingbroke from England and seizes his property. Later Bolingbroke returns with a force to England but Richard gives up his crown without a fight. Bolingbroke orders to put Richard in prison.

The first of the Shakespearean comedies was probably “A Comedy of Errors”. Its plot depends on the likeness of twins and the likeness of their twin servants, with the resulting confusions. Both of the identical twin brothers named Antipholus have twin servants named Dromio. The twins of each set were separated at birth and neither twin knows where his brother is living. Antipholus of Syracuse and his servant Dromio arrive in Ephesus, which turns out to be the home of their twin brothers. When they are together, a series of mistaken identities and comical mix-ups develops before they are reunited.

In the play called “The Merchant of Venice”, a merchant named Antonio borrows money from Shylock to help his friend Bassanio, who wants to marry Portia. Shylock agrees to lend the money only on the condition that, if it is not repaid at the right time, Antonio shall pay a pound of his flesh. Unfortunately, Antonio cannot pay the money and the case is taken to court. Suddenly Portia dressed as a lawyer, appears in court. She claims that Shylock may have Antonio’s flesh but not a drop of blood because there was nothing about blood in the agreement. This saves Antonio.

“As You Like It” is a pastoral comedy. It is the story of a good Duke named Frederick living in the Forest of Arden because his evil brother (Frederick Junior) has driven him out of his country. The Duke’s daughter Rosalind has been permitted to remain at court because she is the closest friend and cousin of Frederick’s only child Celia. Orlando, a young gentleman of the kingdom who has fallen in love at first sight of Rosalind, is forced to flee his home after being persecuted by his older brother, Oliver. Frederick becomes angry and banishes Rosalind from court. Rosalind and Celia also leave the court of Celia’s father and take refuse in Arden. Rosalind marries Orlando who loves her much and Orlando’s brother marries Celia. The news that Rosalind’s father, Frederick has been restored to his dukedom completes the comedy’s happy ending.

“Much Ado About Nothing” (Ado = Argument) is a well-balanced comedy with good speeches. It is about two pairs of lovers, Benedick and Beatrice, and Claudio and Hero. Benedick and Beatrice are engaged in a "merry war"; they both talk a mile a minute and proclaim their scorn for love, marriage, and each other. In contrast, Claudio and Hero are sweet young people who are rendered practically speechless by their love for one another. While Benedick teases Claudio, Benedick swears that he will never get married. The misunderstanding is quickly resolved and Claudio wins Hero's hand in marriage.

“Twelfth Night” has been called the perfection of English comedy. In this play, Viola and Sebastian, who are twins, become separated during a shipwreck. Viola finds oneself alone in the country of Illyria. She disguises herself as Cesaria and enters the service of Duke Orsino. The whole play is alive with humor and action. When Sebastian appears, Viola reveals her identity and the confusion is resolved. Orsino marries Viola and Sebastian marries Olivia.

Sonnets - A sonnet is a poem of fourteen lines that develops one dominant idea. It is usually written in iambic pentameter (five feet of unstressed-stressed stress of syllables). Generally, there are three kinds of sonnets:

1. Italian (Petrarchan, after Italian poet Petrarch) Sonnet has an octave (2 quatrains: first eight lines- form the proposition) and a sestet (2 tercets: last six lines- propose a resolution) with the rhyme scheme abbaabbacdecde. For example-

When I consider how my light is spent (a)
 Ere half my days, in this dark world and wide, (b)
 And that one talent which is death to hide, (b)
 Lodged with me useless, though my soul more bent (a)
To serve therewith my Maker, and present (a)
 My true account, lest he returning chide; (b)
 "Doth God exact day-labor, light denied?" (b)
 I fondly ask; but Patience to prevent (a)
That murmur, soon replies, "God doth not need (c)
 Either man's work or his own gifts; who best (d)
 Bear his mild yoke, they serve him best. His state (e)
Is Kingly. Thousands at his bidding speed (c)
 And post o'er land and ocean without rest; (d)
 They also serve who only stand and wait." (e) (Sonnet 19 by John Milton)

2. English (Shakespearean) sonnet has three quatrains (4-line stanzas) and a couplet (2-line stanza). It follows the rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef gg. The idea is developed in the three quatrains and the conclusion is imbedded in the couplet. For example-

Let me not to the marriage of true minds (a)
Admit impediments, love is not love (b)*
Which alters when it alteration finds, (a)
Or bends with the remover to remove. (b)*
O no, it is an ever fixèd mark (c)**
That looks on tempests and is never shaken; (d)***
It is the star to every wand'ring bark, (c)**
Whose worth's unknown although his height be taken. (d)***
Love's not time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks (e)
Within his bending sickle's compass come, (f)*
Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, (e)
But bears it out even to the edge of doom: (f)*

If this be error and upon me proved, (g)*

I never writ, nor no man ever loved. (g)* (Sonnet 116 by Shakespeare)

3. Irregular sonnet has no fixed rhyming scheme. For example-

Or doesn’t. Or does a dozen times

in quick succession, hop scotching along

without regard for lines. This short of breath,

I could be a slave climbing the steep stone steps

of Machu Picchu, a boulder on my shoulder,

a coca leaf between my cheek and gum.

I tell myself to breathe deeply, breathe

deeply, then imagine I’m flat on my back

in a drifting canoe under a cloudless sky.

But all the while my poor heart’s break dancing

for coins on the corner of Bourbon and Toulouse.

I can’t catch a break, a breath. My heart’s

a faithless valentine, there’s no love lost.

But we’re bound together, whatever the cost. (A-Fib by Daryl Jones)


Meter is the recurrence, in regular units, of a prominent feature in the sequence of speech-sounds of a language. Compositions written in meter are also known as verse.

The meter is determined by the pattern of stronger and weaker stresses on the syllables composing the words in the verse-line; the stronger is called the “stressed” syllable and all the weaker ones “unstressed” syllables.

A foot is the combination of a strong stress and the associated weak stress or stresses which make up the recurrent metric unit of a line. Four Standard Feet are:

1. Iambic (unstressed + stressed or US) 2. Anapestic (UUS)

3. Trochaic (SU) 4. Dactylic (SUU)

A metric line is named according to the number of feet composing it.

1. Monometer: one foot 2. Dimeter: two feet 3. Trimeter: three feet

4. Tetrameter: four feet 5. Pentameter: five feet 6. Hexameter: six feet

7. Heptameter: seven feet 8. Octameter: eight feet

Elizabethan Age as the Age of Drama:

Queen Elizabeth ruled from 1558 to 1603 but the great Elizabethan Literary Age is not considered as beginning until 1579. The chief literary glory of this age was its drama. The first regular English Comedy was Ralph Roister Doister by Nicholas Udall. Then appeared another comedy: “Grammar Gurton’s Needle”. Lyly’s prose comedy “Campaspe” and play “Endimion” are better. The first regular English tragedy was Gorboduc in blank verse. “The Spanish Tragedy” is some ways like Shakespeare’s Hamlet.

The first great dramatist of the Elizabethan Age was Christopher Marlowe. His first tragedy “Tamburlaine the Great” is in two parts. It is written in the splendid blank verse. The first part deals with the rise to power of Tamburlaine and more cruelty. In the second part, Tamburlaine is pulled to Babylon in a carriage, drawn by two kings. His life is violent. In Marlowe’s “Jew of Malta”, the governor taxes the Jews but Barabas refuses to pay. “Dr. Faustus” is based on the story of a man who sold his soul to the devil for power.

The greatest Elizabethan playwright was William Shakespeare. No other English author has equaled his brilliant verse and characterizations. He wrote world famous tragedies, comedies and romances as well as histories. Some of them were Richard the Second, Henry the Sixth, Romeo and Juliet, A Comedy of Errors, The Merchant of Venice, As You Like It, Much Ado About Nothing, Twelfth Night, Antony and Cleopatra, Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth, Othello.

A great dramatist who followed Shakespeare was Benjamin Jonson. His work is more learned and less inspired than Shakespeare’s. His best known play is “Every Man in His Humor”. In this play Kitely, a merchant has a pretty wife and his humor is jealousy. He suspects a young man Knowell, of having ideas about the pretty wife.

Another dramatist John Webster depended a lot on violence, revenge, murder etc. There were some other dramatists as well. They all contributed to build up Elizabethan Age as the Age of Drama.

Romeo and Juliet:

It is the first of Shakespeare’s great tragedies. The plot of this story of pure and tragic love is known in all parts of the civilized world. The lovers are from Verona in Italy and their families are enemies. Romeo was from Montague and Juliet from Capulet family. Romeo and his friends are uninvited guests at a masked ball given by the Capulet. At the ball, he meets Juliet and they fall in love. They marry secretly. Romeo’s friend was killed by Juliet’s cousin Tybalt so in revenge, Romeo kills Tybalt. Juliet’s father forces her to marry with someone else. To allow Juliet to escape from her father’s demand, Friar Laurence gives Juliet a drug that puts her into a deathlike sleep for 42 hours. Romeo hears that Juliet is dead and hurries to the tomb where she has been placed. There he takes poison and dies by her side. Juliet awakens to find her husband dead and stabs herself. This tragedy shows that the deaths are necessary for the lovers who can’t find way out of their hopeless situation.

Roman Tragedies:

1. Julius Caesar - The play takes place in ancient Rome and concerns events before and after the assassination of the Roman ruler, Julius Caesar. The hero is Brutus, who joins Cassius and the other conspirators in the plan to kill Caesar. They believe that he wants to make himself the king but he believes Rome’s safety requires Caesar’s death. Before a large crowd of Roman citizens, Mark Antony makes his great speech over the body of Caesar. He leads an army that defeats the forces of the plotters at the Battle of Philippi. At the end of the battle, Brutus commits suicide.

2. Antony and Cleopatra- Its main subject is Antony’s love for the Egyptian queen, Cleopatra. Antony rules the Roman Empire. He had married Octavia, the sister of Octavius Caesar. When Antony was going back to Egypt from Rome, Octavius follows and defeats Antony at Alexandria. Cleopatra is shocked by his death and so, she takes her own life by allowing a snake to bite her.

3. Coriolanus- It is another Roman tragedy that concerns the life and death of Caius Marcius Coriolanus, a proud Roman commander who leads his armies against the Volscians (people of Corioli). On his return to Rome, he wishes to become consul (ruler) but his pride makes it impossible. He is driven from Rome for insulting the people. Then he comes back with a Volsican army to attack his own city. There he meets his wife and mother and withdraws his troops. The Volsicans then kill him for failing in his duty to them.

Four Great Tragedies of Shakespeare:

1. In Hamlet, Prince Hamlet of Denmark deeply mourns the recent death of his father. His mother marries his uncle, Claudius, who has become king. The ghost of Hamlet’s dead father appears to Hamlet and tells him he was murdered by Claudius and demands Hamlet take revenge. Hamlet thinks too much, and hesitates. The king’s violent reaction to the play based on something like the murder of his father, assures Hamlet that the king was guilty of the crime. But he rejects a chance to kill Claudius while he is on his knees in prayer. Polonius, the king’s advisor was killed instead and Hamlet was exiled to England for that crime. Hamlet’s lover Ophelia had gone mad after his father Polonius’ death. Returning Denmark, Hamlet finds Ophelia dead. Her brother tries to kill Hamlet. Hamlet’s mother accidently drinks from a cup of poisoned wine Claudius had prepared for Hamlet. Although dying from his wound in a fencing match, Hamlet kills Claudius.

2. The main plot of King Lear concerns an aged king of ancient Britain. He prepares to divide his kingdom among his three daughters- Regan, Goneril and Cordelia. At first, he was rude to Cordelia but other two wicked daughters throw him out of his home and treated so badly that he goes mad and dies. Goneril poisons Regan in a bitter quarrel over a man they both love and then kills oneself. King Lear’s weakness is his openness to flattery ignoring true love.

3. Macbeth is another tragedy set in Scotland. Three old witches tell Macbeth that he will receive high honors and then become king. After the first part of their prophecy comes true, Macbeth begins to think the second part may also come true. Encouraged by Lady Macbeth, he murders King Duncan, a guest in his castle and seizes the throne of Scotland. Then Duncan’s sons Malcolm and Donalbain escape to England. The witches had also predicted that Banquo’s descendents would be kings of Scotland. So Macbeth’s men kill Banquo but his son also escapes. Lady Macbeth dies suffering from psychological torture. Malcolm brings an army and kills Macbeth, and becomes the king. This way over-ambition takes Macbeth’s life.

4. Othello is the story of a brave Moorish (North African) Commander in Cyprus who has a beautiful wife, Desdemona. Othello’s villainous assistant is Iago who has seen Cassio, Othello’s lieutenant, raised in rank above him. Iago tries to make Othello believe that Cassio and Desdemona are lovers. Othello too easily believes this and kills Desdemona. After the Moor learns he has been tricked he stabs himself and dies. Actually Othello has no fatal weakness but he suffers jealousy coming in his noble mind from evil suggestions.

Shakespearean Romances:

1. Cymbeline, King of Britain, angrily exiles the poor Posthumous who marries the king’s daughter Imogen. Iachimo bets Posthumous that Imogen is not virtuous. Then Iachimo tries to make love to her. He fails but tricks Posthumous in believing that Imogen let him do so. Posthumous orders his wife killed, but she escapes. After many adventures, Imogen and Posthumous are happily reunited.

2. The Winter’s Tale has Leontes, King of Sicilia who becomes uncontrollably jealous of his faithful wife Hermione. He has her imprisoned and orders that their newborn daughter, Perdita be abandoned in some isolated place. Later he realizes that he has no cause for jealousy. Perdita was saved by an old shepherd. She grows into a lovely young girl and wins the love of Florizel, prince of Bohemia. But Florizel’s father angrily disapproves of their romance and the couple flee to Leontes’ court for protection. There Leontes discovers that Perdita is his daughter.

3. In the Tempest, Prospero, the wrongfully exiled Duke of Milan lives on an enchanted island with his beautiful daughter, Miranda. The mischievous spirit Ariel and the monster Caliban serve Prospero, who is a skilled magician. Using magic, he creates a tempest that causes a ship carrying his enemies to be wrecked on the island. The ship also carries the young prince Ferdinand. With his magic, Prospero brings Miranda and Ferdinand together and upsets plots laid against him by his enemies.

Note: Blank Verse is poetry written in unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter. It has been more frequently and variously used than any other types of versification. The Earl of Surrey introduced blank verse, which was used by John Milton for his epic “Paradise Lost”. It has been adopted by William Wordsworth, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Robert Browning and TS Eliot like famous literary writers. For an example, the great blank verse composed by John Milton in Paradise Lost describes the hell in this way-

A dungeon horrible, on all sides round

As one great furnace flamed-yet from those flames

No light, but rather darkness visible

Served only to discover sights of woe

Blank verse is also not written in stanza form. Instead, the poem is developed in verse paragraphs that vary in length. It is therefore, a flexible form of expression that gives the poet a chance to many variations within the metrical pattern. Because of such flexibility, it is especially appropriate for narrative and dramatic poetry. Blank verse should not be confused as the free verse or open form verse which has no definite meter or regular metrical form. We should remember that blank verse is metrically regular.

Metaphysical Poets and John Donne: Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of existence, truth and knowledge. Metaphysical poets represent the school of poets who are influenced by John Donne and who employ similar poetic procedures and imagery (mental pictures) both in secular and religious poetry. Metaphysical poets have produced works in 1600’s with a combination of emotion and intellectual originality. They wrote verse generally less beautiful and less musical but they were showing clever tricks of style and unusual images to attract attention. These poets mixed strong feelings with reason, and the mixture is strange.

John Donne is the greatest metaphysical poet, a lawyer and also a priest. He was scholarly and had a keen, logical mind but he was also deeply emotional. These qualities are evident in his poems and sermons (prayers). He wrote poetry on a variety of subjects and used many different genres. His early satires and elegies (death poems) follow classical models but they also have a distinctly modern flavor. He wrote many good things but no perfect poem.

Songs and Sonnets is the best work of Donne. His major love poems include The Canonization and The Extasie. Later he turned to writing religious poetry. He produced a superb series of Holy Sonnets, including “Death is not Proud” and “Batter my Heart”, “Three Person’d God”. He also wrote meditative poem and hymns.

Donne’s language is dramatic, witty and sometimes shocking. He used a variety of imagery and based his rhythms on everyday speech. At times, the complexity of his thought makes his meaning difficult to understand, but his poems always unfold in a logical way. He had a genius for creating extended poetic metaphors called conceits. In the metaphysical conceit, the poet developed a lengthy, complex image to express precisely his view of a person, object or feeling.

Jacobean Age: The reign of James I (in Latin “Jacobus”) followed that of Queen Elizabeth. It was the time of Shakespeare’s greatest tragedies and of major writings by other notable poets and playwrights including John Donne, Ben Jonson, Michael Drayton, etc.

Caroline Age: The reign of Charles I (in Latin “Carolus”) was the time of English Civil War fought between the supporters of the king (known as Cavaliers) and the supporters of Parliament (known as Roundheads, from their custom of wearing their hair cut short). John Milton began his writing during this period. Associated with the court were the Cavalier Poets, writers of witty and polished lyrics of courtship and gallantry (courage, bravery, heroism). The group included Richard Lovelace, Sir John Suckling and Thomas Carew.

The Commonwealth Period, also known as the Puritan Interregnum, extends from the end of the Civil War (1642-1646) and the execution of Charles I in 1649 to the restoration of the Stuart Monarchy under Charles II in 1660. In this period, England was ruled by Parliament under the Puritan Leader Oliver Cromwell. His death in 1658 marked the dissolution of the Commonwealth. The Puritans closed the public theatres in September 1642, not only on moral and religious grounds, but also to prevent public assemblies, so that the dramas almost disappeared.

John Milton (1608-1674): Milton was the greatest English writer of the Mid-1600s. His career as a writer may be divided into three periods. In the first period, short poems were written. Some of them were the ode (poem addressed to a person or celebrating an event): “On Shakespeare”, “L’Allegro” (the happy man), “Il Penseroso” (the thoughtful man), “On Time”, etc. L’Allegro describes the joys of life in the country in spring but Il Penseroso is set in the autumn. Lycidas was a sorrowful pastoral elegy for Milton’s fellow student at Christ’s College, Edward King.

During his second period, Milton devoted to the writing of the prose. In the first group, Milton attacked the institution of bishops and argued in favor of extending the spirit of the English Reformation. In the second phase he concerned to social and political aspects. His most famous prose work “Areopagitica” is an appeal for freedom of the press; in which he demands “the liberty to know, to utter, and to argue freely according to conscience, above all liberties.” In “Of Education”, Milton supported an education combining classical instruction, to prepare the student for government service, with religious training. The third phase of pamphlets includes those Milton wrote to justify the execution of Charles I. In the final group, Milton gave suggestions for government reform.

The English Civil War was followed by the second civil war (1648-1651). During these years, Milton worked hard, supported Cromwell, and became a minister as well but his eyesight began to fail, and by 1651 he was totally blind. He became unpopular when Charles II was made king but it was from this time onwards that he wrote his three greatest works- Paradise Lost, Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes.

Paradise Lost is considered to be the greatest long poem of early modern English Literature. It is in 12 books. It retells the Biblical story of the creation and the fall of Adam and Eve against the background of Satan’s rebellion against God and removal from heaven. Satan is a character with real motivation and desires, but who is led in the wrong direction by excessive pride and belief in his own power over God’s. The books describe Satan’s expulsion from heaven and the war of the angels, the burning of hell and the creation of Satan’s offering, Sin and Death; and conclude with the sorrowful departure of Adam and Eve from Paradise. Paradise Regained is a four-book brief-epic written like Paradise Lost in blank verse. Samson Agonistes tells the Biblical story of Samson in the style of Greek tragic drama.

Restoration Period:

This period takes its name from the restoration of the Stuart line. The theatres came back to vigorous life after the revocation of the ban placed on them. John Dryden was the major poet and critic, as well as one of the major dramatists. Other poets were the satirists Samuel Butler and the Earl of Rochester. The philosopher John Locke and the first English woman to earn her living by her pen, Aphra Behn also come at this age.

The restoration period is known especially for the comedy of manners and the heroic drama. The comedy of manners satirized upper-class society in witty prose. It originated largely in the plays of George Etherege. Wycherley, Congreve, Vanbrugh followed. The heroic play flourished from about 1660 to 1680.

Features of the Restoration Period:

1. French influence- Many English writers revised the rule, copying the French trends.

2. Formalism- The writings focused on closed reasoning and short-cut natural expressions.

3. New tendencies- e.g. realities, preciseness, and elegance of appearance

4. Age of reason- logical sequence, argumentative thoughts, and reason-based ideas

5. Realism- directness and simplicity in place of romantic, fancy exaggerations

6. Reflection of urban civilization- Standard of writing had to reflect aristocratic class.

7. New style of prose writing- Comedy of manners by Dryden, and diary writing by S. Peppy.


Allegory- An allegory is a narrative in which the agents and actions are arranged to make coherent (logical) sense on the literal or primary level of signification. In historical and political allegories, the characters and actions are represented historical personages and events whereas in the allegory of ideas, the central device is the personification of abstract entities such as virtues, states of mind, modes of life, and types of character.

Comedy- In the most common literary application, a comedy is a fictional work in which the materials are selected and managed primarily in order to interest and amuse us. We are made to feel confident that no great disaster will occur, and usually the action turns out happily for the chief characters. Within the very broad spectrum of dramatic comedy, the following types are frequently distinguished:

  1. Romantic comedy: Such comedy represents a love affair that involves a beautiful and engaging heroine (sometimes disguised as a man); the course of this love does not run smooth, yet overcomes all difficulties to end in a happy union.
  2. Satiric comedy: Such comedy ridicules (laughs at) political policies or philosophical doctrines (principles), or else attacks deviations from the social order by making ridiculous the violators of its standards of morals or manners.
  3. Comedy of manners: The English Comedy of Manners was early exemplified by Shakespeare’s Love’s Labour’s Lost and Much Ado about Nothing, and was given a high polish in Restoration Comedy.
  4. Farce is a type of comedy designed to provoke the audience to simple, hearty laughter – belly laughs in the parlance (manners of speaking) of the theatre. To do so it commonly employs highly exaggerated or caricatured types of characters; puts them into improbable and ludicrous (absurd) situations.
  5. Comedy of humour was developed by Ben Jonson as in his play “Every Man in His Humour”. Here, each of the major characters has a preponderant (more) humour that gives him a characteristic distortion (alteration) or eccentricity (strangeness) of disposition (temper/outlook).

Epic- In its strict sense, the term epic or heroic poem is applied to a work that meets at least the following criteria: it is a long verse narrative on a serious subject, told in a formal and elevated (promoted) style, and centred on a heroic or quasi-divine figure on whose actions depends the fate of a tribe, a nation, or the human race.

Fiction- In an inclusive sense, fiction is any literary narrative, whether in prose or verse, which is invented instead of being an account of events that in fact happened. In a narrower sense, however, fiction denotes only narratives that are written in prose (the novel and short story), and sometimes is used simply as a synonym for the novel.

Simile and Metaphor- A weak comparison between two distinctly different things is explicitly indicated by the word “like” or “as”. A simple example is Robert Burns “O my love’s like a red, red rose”. In a metaphor, a word or expression that in literal usage denotes one kind of thing is applied to a distinctly different kind of thing, without asserting a comparison. For example, if Burns had said “O my love is a red, red rose” he would have uttered, technically speaking, a metaphor instead of a simile.

Imagery- This term is one of the most common in criticism, and one of the most variable in meaning. Its applications range all the way from the “mental pictures” which, it is sometimes claimed, are experienced by the reader of a poem, to the totality of the components which make up a poem. Image is a picture made out of words and a poem may itself be an image composed from a multiplicity of images.

Irony - In Greek comedy the character called the eiron was a dissembler, who characteristically spoke in understatement and deliberately pretended to be less intelligent than he was. In most of the modern critical uses of the term irony, there remains the root sense of dissembling or hiding what is actually the case, not, however, in order to deceive, but to achieve special rhetorical or artistic effects. The ironic statement usually involves the explicit expression of one attitude or evaluation, but with indications in the overall speech-situation that the speaker intends a very different, and often opposite, attitude or evaluation.

Lyric - In the most common use of the term, a lyric is any fairly short poem, consisting of the utterance by a single speaker, who expresses a state of mind or process of perception, thought, and feeling. In some current usages, lyric still retains the sense of a poem written to be set to music; the hymn, for example is a lyric on a religious subject that is intended to be sung.

John Dryden became the outstanding literary figure of the Restoration after Milton. He shifted his support from the Puritans to the restored monarchy. The plays were written in heroic couplets, a form of meter perfected by Dryden. In these the men were splendidly brave, and the women wonderfully beautiful. It dealt with the conflict between love and honor. Such dramas seem absurd (ridiculous) today, but they were popular in their time.

One of Dryden’s best heroic plays is The Conquest of Granada. In addition to the usual loud language, the play contains some good lyrics. Another of his better heroic plays is Aurengzebe, which is based on a struggle for empire in India. In most of Dryden’s plays, fine speeches and poor ones may follow each other in an astonishing way. He seems to have been unable to see his own faults.

Dryden’s first comedy is Marriage-a-la-Mode, in bad blank verse. His well-known play, All in Love is also in blank verse. It is based on Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra. His great satire “Absalom and Achitophel” uses a Bible story as a basis on which to attack politicians. Another satire “MacFlecknoe” attacks a rival poet, Shadwell.

Comedy of Manners

A new kind of comedy appeared at the end of 17th century. This comedy of manners is hard and bright, witty and heartless. It was introduced by Sir George Etherege. Generally, comedy of manners satirized upper-class society in witty prose. The most common characters included the old woman trying to appear young, and the jealous old man married to a young wife.

The Man of Mode by Etherege gives a picture of the immoral manners of the society of the day, but has no proper plot. The form of comedy of manners was perfected in the dramas of William Congreve. His first comedy, The Old Bachelor is about an old fellow who pretends to hate women, but marries a bad one. The Double Dealer is concerned with angry lovers, and Love for Love is funnier and contains clever speeches and interesting but foolish characters.

John Locke was an English philosopher. His writings have influenced political science and philosophy. His prose was clear, earnest (serious) and without ornament. His “Essay on the Human Understanding” is one of the most important works of English philosophy. It gave a new direction to thought, not only in England but in other countries of Europe. It describes his theory of how the mind functions in learning about the world. He argued against the doctrine of innate ideas, which stated that ideas were part of the mind at birth and not learned or acquired later from outside sources. Locke claimed that all ideas were placed in the mind by experience.

Age of Reason

The 18th century is often called The Age of Reason. Order was important in men’s thoughts, and the comfortable town was usually preferred to the wild mountains. The heroic couplet is well suited to verse based on reasoning, but it must not be thought that there was no other sort of poetry. A return to thoughts about nature and more lyrical subjects began early.

The period in English literature from 1700 to about 1745 is called the Augustan Age, after the name given to the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus. During his reign from 27 BC to 14 AD, Latin literature reached its height. English authors tried to imitate or recapture many of the philosophic and literary ideals of the writers of that period. Like the ancient Romans, they believed that life and literature should be guided by reason and common sense. They strove for balance and harmony in their writings. The Augustan Age of English literature is also known as the neoclassical period. The 18th century has also been called the Age of Enlightenment.

Alexander Pope was a follower of Dryden in verse. He used the couplet as a smooth but steely tool. His health was bad, and he thought of life as a long illness. He wrote his “Essay on Criticism” at his youth and it contains important quotations such as-

  • A little learning is a dangerous thing.
  • True wit is nature to advantage dressed

What oft was thought but ne’er so well expressed.

Pope’s delightful poem “The Rape of the Lock” by name is about the light subject of the stealing of the hair, and treats it as important. Lord Petre had cut off some hair from Miss Arabella Fermor’s head and the two families had quarreled violently. Pope tried to end the quarrel by writing his heroic poem, describing the event in detail; but he only made the quarrel worse.

Pope also translated the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer. In his satire “The Dunciad” an attack on dullness, he laughs at poor poets who are writing for their bread – a cruel thing to do. His later poem, The Essay on Man shows that he knew little philosophy, but the verse has the usual polish. He wrote four moral essays: the first about the characters of men and the second about the characters of women and the last two about the proper use of riches.

Age of Sensibility

Period from 1744 to 1785 is also known as the Age of Johnson. There was Samuel Johnson and his literary and intellectual circle. These authors represented neoclassicism and stressed on the emergence of new cultural attitudes, theories of literature, and types of poetry.

Dr. Samuel Johnson was always poor and therefore had to do all kinds of literary work, even if he did not like it. His famous Dictionary appeared in 1755 and went into five editions in his own life. He was a kind of literary ruler, giving judgments on books and authors like a god. Late in life he wrote his Lives of the Poets with decision and clear expression.

His own writings are less important than what he said, and a record of his conversations has fortunately been preserved for us in the Life of Johnson by his friend James Boswell. This is the greatest biography in English. Johnson’s Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia is a kind of novel; at least it has a story. But there are many essays on various subjects. Rasselas, his sister Nekayah, and the philosopher Imlac go to Egypt to study because Rasselas is tired of the easy life in Abyssinia. Johnson wrote the book in one week to pay for his mother’s funeral.

Graveyard/Churchyard School of Poets

During the latter half of the 18th century, a group of poets who turned away from the bright tea-table chose death for their subject. They are sometimes known as the churchyard school of poets. Edward Young was one of them. His Night Thoughts, written in good blank verse, was at one time very popular. Its subjects are life, death, the future world and God. It is unequal, dark, sad and filled with strange imaginations.

Robert Blair was another of this school. In his poem The Grave, he begs the dead to come back and tell us something about the grave. Thomas Gray, in his Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard, describes his thoughts as he looks at the graves of country people buried near the church. He wonders what they might have done in the world if they had had better opportunities; but they did not go out into the great cities. His ode The Bard is addressed to King Edward I, who put all the Welsh poets to death. He curses Edward and his entire race.

William Blake was a poet and an artist (engraver and a painter). A self-taught man, he wrote poetry which he himself painted and illustrated. As a mystic and visionary, he expressed himself in simple language so that readers could feel the depth of common everyday things. He illustrated the works of Young, Blair, Gray and others. Much of his poetry has hidden meanings that are hard to understand. He did not believe in the reality of matter, or in the power of earthly rulers, or in punishment after death. His best known works include Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience. The second is darker and heavier than the first; but it does contain some good poems. Fallen from a state of innocence to a state of experience, man must attempt to rise to a state of higher innocence according to the poet. His poem “The Tiger” is quite famous. It is taken from The Songs of Experience. The tiger itself is a symbol for the fierce forces in the soul that are necessary to break the bonds of experience. The tiger also stands for a divine spirit that will not be subdued (defeated) by restrictions, but will arise against established rules and conventions.

Jonathan Swift was born in Dublin and educated at Trinity College. He was a bitter satirist among the 18th century prose writers. He defended the ancient and condemned the modern in “The Battle of the Books”. His “Tale of a Tub” attacked religious ideas. Swift’s most famous satire “Gulliver’s Travels” is popular with the young, who usually read the Gulliver’s voyages to Lilliput and Brobdingnag. Lilliputians represent the littleness of human affairs. “Modest Proposal” is a master piece of irony. It is a great satire on the British people and authorities of the contemporary time. In this way Swift centers on society, religion, humanity etc. as subjects. His aim to write satires was to wash the world rather than to entertain it. He hated the animal like men. So, he is regarded as the Prince of English Satire.

Robert Burns was born in Scotland. The son of a poor farmer, Burns became Scotland’s national poet. At his father’s death, he continued farming in partnership with his brother. Bad crops and an unfortunate love affair with a mason’s daughter made him resolve to immigrate to Jamaica. This plan was, however, overthrown by the sensational success of his poems. Having ruined his health by his association with the hard-drinking gentry of the district, he died of a rheumatic fever at the age of 37. Anyway the lyrics of this Scottish farmer became famous. He wrote hundreds of songs and lyrics, and among them Mary Morrison, John Anderson and The Banks of Doon are famous. His love-songs include Oh My Love is Like a Red, Red Rose. He had deep understanding of animals and love for them. Even a mouse brought a gentle poem from his pen.

One more 18th century poet is worth our special notice: William Cowper’s verse shows the beginning of the swing away from the formal classical style of Pope toward simpler, more natural expression which we shall see in Wordsworth and Coleridge. That is, he wrote simple poems about nature and rural domestic life. These poems became forerunners of the works of the English romantic poets of the early 1800’s. Cowper’s major work was a 5000-line poem called The Task. This long ramble (strolling) poem was written in blank verse. It describes familiar rural sights and events – for example, a team of horses travelling through a snowstorm, the arrival of the mail, and the countryside in the evening. The poem shows Cowper’s love of the country and his distaste for city life.

Romanticism (William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge)

Romanticism is a style in the fine arts and literature. It emphasizes passion rather than reason, and imagination and intuition rather than logic. Romantics view nature as a living spirit and stress freedom for the individual.

Wordsworth believed that harmony with nature is the source of all goodness and truth. He was educated at Grammar School, Cambridge. He published “The Lyrical Ballads” together with Samuel Taylor Coleridge. This work is considered as the manifesto of Romanticism because it is only instruction on how and why to write new kind of romantic literature. It has said that anything can be the subject matter of poetry and common people’s language should be the language of literature. City life is just artificial life but country life is real.

“The Prelude” is an autobiography which consists of fourteen books. The poet describes his experiences clearly and laboriously which is very good and unique in English literature. The Excursion, in nine parts, is actually based on Wordsworth’s love for nature. His great poems have their own place and importance.

Wordsworth and Coleridge are often known, with Southey, as the Lake Poets, because they liked the lake districts in the north-west of England and lived in it. Wordsworth was a poet of nature, and had the special ability to throw a charm over the ordinary things. Coleridge, on the other hand, could make mysterious events acceptable to a reader’s mind.

“The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” is one of the finest and the best poems of Coleridge. An old sailor describes some strange misfortunes that happened to his ship. It was in the ice of the South Pole when he shot a great bird; for this crime a curse fell on the ship. The wind failed, the water supply ended, and all the other sailors died of thirst. At last the mariner, seeing God’s creatures in the moonlight blesses them. This breaks the curse and he is able to return home.

Christabel is in two parts. In the story, the spirit of mother of Christabel comes as a good angel. There is evil spirit named Geraldine that works as a good person but the natural power saves the good person from evil. Kubla Khan is a dream copy. Once when Coleridge was staying in Devon, he fell asleep while reading in “Purchas his Pilgrims” about Kubla Khan’s great building in Xanadu. On waking, he knew that he had dreamed several hundred poetic lines on the subject, and he began at once to write them down. The poem ways there was a great building, a palace with a great wall.

Features of the Romantic Period:

1. Use of simple language- representing the expressions of general public, rustic setting

2. Love of nature- enjoyed being on the lap of nature, praised the organic flavor

3. High level of emotion and imagination- creative productions adding value to expressions

4. Sense of nationalism- high regard for national culture, unity and patriotism

5. Revolt against realism- emerged as the literature of public

6. Spontaneity- Message was more important than structure. Free and open styles

7. Influence of subjective trend- Writing for pleasure instead of writing for purpose

8. Romantic enthusiasm- passion and zeal for sense of love and joy

9. The age of poetry- in the leadership of great poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley

Percy Byshey Shelley was a greater poet of good family. He was rich but restless. His first wife got suicide. Shelley also had a tragic death. He struggled against the causes of human misery and against accepted religions. He saw goodness in the whole of nature and he wanted all men to be free.

His first important poem “Alastor or The Spirit of Solitude” represents the travel of the traveler, who is Shelley himself, in search of beauty, peace and good. He tries to know the secret of life but he feels tired and dies. “The Revolt of Islam” is the revolt of Islam people against the tyranny. It includes Shelley’s idea to lead the human society to good manner and civilization. “The Cenci” is a shocking but honest tragedy. “Prometheus Unbound” is another play dealing with the human struggle against the power of false gods. “Adonais” is one of his best poems, as an elegy on the death of Keats. One of his finest sonnets, Ozymandias, expresses the uselessness and shortness of all earthly power.

Shelley loved the wild wind, but John Keats loved beauty and rest. A friend in 1813 gave him Spenser’s Faerie Queene to read, and this awoke his poetic powers. He studied the poets and he studied nature too. He could write lines in Wordsworth’s manner, but with more music, such lines as “A little noiseless noise among the leaves.”

His early poem Endymion, in four books, is based on old ideas: the old gods, the love of the moon-goddess for a shepherd, Venus and Adonis etc. It was violently criticized, but he did not lose faith in himself. In his creation “Lamia”, a snake is changed into a beautiful girl. Isabella, daughter of a proud family was in the same book. Lorenzo falls in love with Isabella, and her brothers kill him. She finds his buried body and puts his head in a flower pot. Her brothers notice that she spends a lot of time with this pot, and they steal it. When they find the head in it, they feel guilty and escape. The Eve of Saint Agnes is based on the idea that on that night girls may see their lovers in dreams.

Hyperion was never finished. Hyperion is the old sun-god. The young Apollo, god of music and poetry and the sun, is introduced, but there the poem ends. The same effects may be found in his Ode on a Grecian Urn (a vessel made by the ancient Greeks). Other great odes written at the same time are To a Nightingale and To Autumn. He wrote more than twenty sonnets. He wrote poetry of rich detail and accused Shelley of using language which was too thin. Keats also wrote a good ballad, La Belle Dame Sans Merci (The Beautiful Lady without Mercy), in which a knight dreams of his lady, but wakes alone on a cold hillside, where no birds sing.

George Gordon, Lord Byron was a romantic figure, but his poetry was much influenced by the classical form of Pope. Byron dressed splendidly, went to fight for the freedom of Greece, satirized many sides of English life, and hated all false and insincere talk. He died of fever at Missolonghi in western Greece, but his body was brought home to England for burial.

Byron’s poetry, though powerful, lacks the finest poetic imagination. His words mean only what they say, and have no further magic. Though he was influenced by the 18th century, his satires lack Pope’s polished perfection and command of words. His verse possesses neither Wordsworth’s power of suggestion, nor Coleridge’s mystery; but, except when he wrote carelessly, it is often strong and beautiful.

Childe Harold written in the Spenserian stanza tells the story of a man who goes off to travel far and wide because he is disgusted with life’s foolish pleasures. The man is, in fact, Lord Byron. The different places that he visits give the poet an opportunity to describe what once happened in them. In The Giaour (The Christian), a slave is thrown into the sea by her master. In revenge her lover kills the master. The Bride of Abydos is a tragic love story. The Corsair and Lara both in heroic couplets are stories of love, fighting and death.

Victorian Period

Much writing of this period dealt with or reflected the pressing social, economic, religious and intellectual issues and problems of that era. Among the notable writers were Alfred Lord Tennyson, Robert Browning, Christina Rossetti, Matthew Arnold, Charles Dickens, George Eliot, Thomas hardy and Samuel Butler. Queen Victoria was praised by all because she was successful to balance the social, economic and political situation of England.

Alfred Lord Tennyson

The early poems of Tennyson were much criticized for being a bit immature in philosophy. His “Poems, Chiefly Lyrical” contains many poems. He wrote another famous poem called “In Memoriam” which made him known among many great writers. It is an elegy to mourn the death of Arthur Hallam. Many people prefer his “The Idylls of the King”. Tennyson had become a very careful artist, choosing each word and its exact place with close attention. He used many metres and made experiments with new ones. “Ulysses” expresses in fine lines the leader’s decision to sail.

The best of Tennyson’s plays is Becket on the subject of the quarrel between King Henry II and Thomas a Backet, who was murdered at Canterbury in 1170. Tennyson’s influence in his own time was immense.

Robert Browning

Byron and Shelley were the teachers of Browning. For him, the intellect was more important than music. He wrote “Pauline” when he was only twenty one. This poem is monologue addressed by Pauline. He tried writing plays without much success. “Sordello” is his most difficult poem. One of his successful dramatic poems is “Pippa passes”. In this, a girl wanders through the town singing and her song influences people who hear it. “The Pied Piper of Hamelin” described the removal of rats from a city by a musician whose music leads them away. There is some difficulty when he goes for his agreed pay and so he leads the children away. Browning wrote “Man and Woman” which was devoted to Mrs. Browning. In this work, he has presented the human character.

Jane Austen wrote during the period of the French revolution. She was a great artist in fiction. She wrote limited works but very valuable and important. Her novels had pictures of society life. She expressed the women’s problems and issues through her lively characters. Her “Sense and Sensibility” is satirical in tone. Sense is more powerful than sensibility. “Pride and Prejudice” is considered as the finest novel of Austen. It is comedy of romance. “Emma” is another best production of Austen. It is a great work of irony in English literature. It shows the situation is not under the control of person and person is guided by his/her life situation. It is story of English women of the contemporary age.

Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Christina Georgina Rossetti

In 1848, a group of English artists, including Dante Rossetti, organized the “Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood”. Their aim was to replace the reigning academic style of painting by a return to the truthfulness, simplicity and spirit of devotion which they attributed to Italian painting before the time of Raphael (1483-1520). The ideals of this group of painters were taken over by a literary movement which included Dante Rossetti and his sister Christina Rossetti. They adopted the originality of perception of the art, freshness of creation as a painting and freedom of writing in their poetry. They preferred art for life’s sake so that the poems of Dante Rossetti have been criticized as belonging to the “Fleshly School” of poetry. He wrote about the nature with his eye on it, but he did not feel it in his bones as Wordsworth did, he studied it.

Christina Rossetti wrote mostly sad and religious poems and poems for the young. Among her best productions are her excellent sonnets on unhappy love.

Matthew Arnold wrote a poem on the school, Rugby Chapel. Arnold was weighed down by the problems of his time, and much of his work is sad. Thyrsis is a lament for his friend. The Scholar Gipsy tells of an Oxford man who joins a band of gypsies and wanders with them. There are good descriptions of the country, but Arnold’s anxieties appear once more. He was unable to find rest, and greatly admired Wordsworth’s calmness. He made a fine collection of Wordsworth’s poetry; his sad Memorial Verses are a lament for that poet’s death, and or the deaths of other poets at home and abroad.

Arnold wrote a critical sonnet on Shakespeare, whom he praised too much. One of his other poems, Empedocles on Etna, has been highly praised, perhaps because it is not altogether sad.

Charles Dickens was fond of books and devoted to study. He is generally considered to be one of the greatest English novelists. He began with “Pickwick”. It is a serial publication in which each chapter was accompanied by cartoon so that it could be a good seller. “Oliver Twist” was also written in serial form. It is the study of crime and villainy side of humanity. Historical novels “Barnaby Rudge” and “A Tale of Two Cities” are a story of the French Revolution and of events in London at the same time. “A Christmas Carol (song)” is the story of a bad character who improves his behavior after a ghost tells him the manner of his death. “Hard Times” is set in industrial surroundings. “David Copperfield” is based on Dicken’s own life. “Nicholas Nickleby” is the tale of a boy who is left poor on his father’s death.

The place of Thomas Hardy is always high in English literature. He was the creator of philosophical novel. In his novels, nature plays an important part. His novels are mostly pictures of human beings struggling against fate or chance. “Far from the Madding Crowd” is the story of selfish and patient love. Another sad story of love affairs and jealousy is “The Return of the Native”. In “The Mayor of Casterbridge”, Michael sells his wife and children for a few pounds. Later he realizes the mistake and works hard and becomes the mayor. “Tess of the D’Urbervilles” is a tale of a poor girl. Hardy’s last novel “Jude the Obscure” is extremely miserable. His novels of romance include “A Pair of Blue Eyes” and “The Trumpet Major”. He wrote nearly a thousand shorter poems, and a long drama in verse. His poetry does not suggest that life is a bitter tragedy, he knows that life is hard, but also that man has the strength to bear its hardness and go on living.

There was great confidence in British society, culture and political organization in the 19th century. The writers of the 20th century could not share this confidence. The changes in beliefs and political ideas were influenced strongly by the events of the World War I and by the events across the world that led to the disappearance of the British Empire. Anyway 20th century is marked as the age of novels, though the novels had made all round development during the Victorian Age. The 20th Century modern novelists gave special emphasis on the artistic form of novel, rejecting morality. They dealt with problems of life and society and express the social reality. Sex and human emotions are other characters of modern novels. Psychological stream of consciousness was also developed by some novelists. Science and Detective Fictions also were initiated at this age.

DH Lawrence was a novelist who wrote much about love and sex. He felt it was the novelist’s job to show how an individual’s view of his own personality was often affected by conventions of language, family and religion and to show how people and their relationships were always changing. He took the form of the traditional novel and made it wider and deeper. Much of “Sons and Lovers” is taken from his own early life. He shows how the daily life of his characters influences them. “The Rainbow” tells the story of a family through three couples of different ages. “Women in Love” shows two couples trying to understand the true meaning of love and to work towards a real closeness of souls.

James Joyce was a leader in fiction of the 20th century novels. “The Dead” is his most notable fiction in which a husband is shocked out of his self-satisfaction by discovering his wife’s love for a dead man she knew many years before. “A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man” presents Joyce himself as a young man in the character of his hero, Stephen Dedalus, who is formed by the powerful forces of Irish national, political and religious feelings. Stephen also appears as a character in “Ulysses” which is created in a completely new style of writing. “Ulysses” has no real plot. The novel is funny, touching and often satirical. “Finnegan’s Wake” takes one step further the new type of language which Joyce was starting to create in Ulysses.

Virginia Woolf was a great female writer of the 20th century. She was also a follower of stream of consciousness technique after Joyce. “Mrs. Dalloway” gives a description of one day in June 1923 as it was experienced by Mrs. Dalloway and other characters. “To the Lighthouse” begins by presenting a family on holiday in Scotland. The novel presents two kinds of truth- truth of facts that can be proved and truth that lies below the facts. “Orlando” is a fantasy based on Victoria’s life. It presents a main character who begins as a man in the 16th century and ends as a woman in 1928, still only thirty six years old.

Sir Walter Scott

The Lay of the Last Minstrel, in irregular stanzas, is based on an old Scottish story and includes some good ballads. Another verse tale of love and fighting, Marmion includes a description of Flodden Field, a battle between Scots and English in 1513. The Lay of the Lake is also based on fighting and love; and The Lord of the Isles tells in verse the story of Robert Bruce.

Scott soon discovered that he could not write poetry as good as Byron’s and so he turned away from it; but as a historical novelist he has no rival. He read the older novelists, and began to write Waverley in 1805. For the next eighteen years he wrote novel after novel. In 1826, he lost all his money through the business failure of his publisher and printer. He sat down to pay the immense debt by writing, but died before he could do so. In spite of that, his books brought in enough money after his death to pay the last pound.

Scott is rather difficult to read, especially in those places where his characters speak dialect. Though the stories are good, the books are long for the modern reader. His hard work and his knowledge of history continually astonish the reader; yet the love interest in the stories often lacks depth, and his heroes and the heroines are weak when compared with the violent scenes in which they live. Scott’s style is sometimes heavy and much influenced by the old and flowery ways of speech. But he loved people, as Chaucer and Shakespeare did, and he could tell stories well.

As the poet’s wife, Mary Shelley is remembered now chiefly as the writer of a famous novel of terror, Frankenstein. It was published in the year that saw Northanger Abbey, a satire on this sort of novel. Frankenstein was begun as a ghost story; but Mrs. Shelley finally made her character, the Genevan student Frankenstein, collect bones, build a human being, and give it life. Everyone hates it for its ugliness, and it is lonely and fierce. It murders Frankenstein’s brother and his wife. Frankenstein follows it to the far north and is himself killed by it. The creature then disappears. It has remained the pattern of machine-men, and the book may well be considered as the first attempt at science fiction, a form of literature very common in modern world. Mrs. Shelley also wrote The Last Man, the story of the slow destruction by disease of every member (except one) of the human race.

George Eliot is a famous woman novelist. She writes calmer books. Her real name was Mary Ann Evans. She lived abroad in Europe from 1854 to 1878 and married JW Cross a short time before her death. Some of her early stories were collected under the title Scenes from Clerical Life and her first novel was Adam Bede which was influenced by memories of her childhood. She showed at once that she could draw character and describe scenes with great skill, and that she had pity and humor. The Mill on the Floss and Silas Marner followed, and then she wrote a historical novel about Florence, Romola. Middlemarch appeared in 1871-2. This novel is set in a provincial town where Dorothea Brooke, a girl of noble qualities, marries old Mr. Casaubon; but the marriage is a failure.

Major developments of the twentieth century English literature:

1. Science fiction- powerful new approach to creating a thrilling sensation of wonders and fears through Gothic novels, science magazine, graphic cartoons etc.

2. New concept in the field of drama- (a) First phase marked with the plays of GB Shaw and John Galsworthy consisted of social drama modeled on the plays of Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. (b) Middle phase included the Irish movement of nationalism contributed by some elites like WB Yeats. (c) Final phase included the poetic plays of TS Eliot and Christopher Fry.

3. Understanding of human life- The dramas followed the principle of naturalism and realism.

Features of modern literature:

1. Realism- focus on exploration of external objects and events as common or middle-class people feel in everyday life

2. Impressionism- focus on the psychological impression and individual perception

3. Surrealism- focus on liberating the subconscious mind, deny authority of rationality

4. Absurdum- focus on the feeling of nothingness reflecting the irrationality of contexts

Women Novelists of the Twentieth Century

One of the most interesting developments in the writing of the twentieth century is the greater number of women writers. Some of them deal with essentially the same subjects as men do, although they often are particularly interested in the feelings and consciousness of their characters. The novels of Ivy Compton-Burnett deal with the family. In these novels, the traditions of the Victorian family have been drawn aside to show that the reality of their life is basically cruel and destructive. Jane Austen’s Emma was a revolutionary ironical novel of the time. George Eliot wrote calmer books. Doris Lessing is one of the most politically conscious of twentieth century writers. Margaret Drabble’s main characters are often women whose intelligence is directed to study. From the 1960’s onwards, there has been an increasing interest in books written by and about women. Katherine Mansfield was a writer of short stories. Agatha Christie wrote modern detective stories. Virginia Woolf continued the stream of consciousness technique in English novel.

Twentieth Century Drama

A new trend of drama developed in the 20th century. Realism was adopted in modern drama. Natural and real problems in life were exposed. Idea was dominant than action. Historical and biographical plays were also written. George Bernard Shaw had earned the great fame in modern English drama. An important aim of his many plays was to face his audiences with completely new points of view and ways of looking at themselves and the society they lived in. “Arms and the Man” presents as a sympathetic figure a soldier who doesn’t want to fight. The main character in “Man and Superman” says that a woman’s real aim in life is to find the man that nature tells her is the right father for her children. Shaw did not believe in any organized religion himself. “Pygmalion” is particularly well known because it was the basis for the musical play and film “My Fair Lady”. Actually Shaw was satirist and social reformer.

Another Irish writer, JM Synge, was also concerned with describing the lives of ordinary people as they really were. Arnold Wesker is concerned to do the same with a clearer note of social criticism. The play “Waiting for Godot” of Samuel Backett is one of the most influential works in English. In the drama, two boys wait for longer time for the arrival of the unknown Godot. This successful drama initiated the Absurd Theater in English dramatic history. The main belief of the Theatre of the Absurd is that there is no meaning of life and our existence is absurd because we are born unwillingly and die unwillingly.

Twentieth Century Poetry

Modern poetry is a private art form, open and wide in interpretation and selection of subject matter. Humanitarian and democratic ideas are guiding the poetry. The great figure in the poetry of the early part of the century was William Butler Yeats. His main subject was the way in which the world and the people in it are divided, and how they can be made whole. Thomas Hardy wrote poetry throughout his long life. Siegfried Sassoon fought in France, and much of his anger is directed against the pointlessness of war, and against the senior officers. Wilfred Owen is possibly the best known English poet of the World War I. He shares with Sassoon the wish to describe what the war was really like to the people at home. Another best known figure in the second quarter of this century was TS Eliot. He writes as a man living through the years after the World War I in which men’s lives had been lost or damaged, their hopes destroyed and promises broken, and he sees poetry and ceremony as forces that can give meaning to the emptiness and confusion of the modern world. WH Auden saw changes in the forms and subjects of literature as a way of helping political and social change, and in some poems he writes directly about political events and their effect on private lives. The language of Dylan Thomas is completely different- full of life, energy and feeling, with great strength and power. Ted Hughes is also concerned with strong and sometimes violent forces of nature.

Features of Postmodern Literature

1. Plurality in meaning- No meaning is final and every text has infinite chances of meanings.

2. Self-reflexivity- The readers feel the writings as if it belongs to their own life reflections.

3. Temporality- Any text can be popular for a certain period of time, as temporary success.

4. Questioning the grand narratives- Established literatures are judged from different angles.

5. Mixed form of literature- There is no fixed form or style, neither a well defined theme.

6. Disoriented style- Stream of consciousness or flashback techniques dismantle writings.

7. Multiculturalism- There is radical changes in arts, literature due to cultural assimilations.

8. Pop culture- There is trend of popularizing the genre adding immediate aesthetic charm.

9. Period of experiment and exposure- E.g. visual poems, absurdist dramas, surrealism

Postmodernism is generally viewed as the result of the multiple voices in the field of art, music, and literature after the end of the Second World War in 1945. It flourished the narratives of the periphery rather than the Euro-centric and aristocratic literary trends. Translation literature became popular with the effort and policies of the publishing houses. It aroused the interest of reading the literature of the Third World in English speaking countries. On the other hand, different missionaries and publishing houses translated different literary texts from English to the local languages which provided a chance of reading the Western texts to the local people. In this period, the role of the translator became visible and somehow, similar to that of the author. During this period, trend of translating the texts shifted towards function and culture-oriented approaches. Later came the communicative aspect of translation and the 'speech act theory' emerged from it. There is now possibility of some level of translation by the machine as well. E.g. The Blue Mimosa (Shirish Ko Phool) of Parijat, Summer Love of Subin Bhattarai, Faulty Glasses (Doshi Chashma) of Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala, etc.

Diaspora is the expression or feeling of being alienated and distracted from the native culture and society, and the struggle for representation in the new lands the migrants have settled in. It is a broad concept which consists of all literary works written by different authors who have settled in the foreign land, but written about the culture and tradition of their native country. For example, Salman Rushdie, Jumphal Lahiri, VS Naipaul, Teju Kole, Chinelo Okparanta, William Safran, Kiran Desai, Manjushree Thapa, Samrat Upadhaya.

Subaltern is the term used for the literature of the marginalized people, who are socially, politically, and geographically outside of the hegemonic power structure. This kind of literature has various themes such as oppression, marginalization, subjugation of lower and working classes, gender discrimination, disregarded women, deprived classes, racial and caste discrimination etc. The subaltern class cannot unite until they get state reorganization. For example, Mulk Raj Anand, Tony Morrison, Shahid Amin, David Arnold, Homi K. Bhabha, Partha Chatterjee, Bairagi Kainla, Narayan Dhakal, Banira Giri, etc.

Cyber literature is a new style of literary movement which uses electronic space as a medium and provides an opportunity for people to read, write, listen and access the literary works. Neuromancer by William Gibson was the major work which came in 1984. It tells a story of a washed-up computer hacker hired by a mysterious employer to work on the ultimate hack. Fan fiction refers to the texts created as 'pseudo-sequels' to a book, comic script, TV series or film and are not written by professional authors but by fans. Cyber culture has influenced the writings of different scholars, e.g. Narayan Wagle's Palpasa Cafe, M. Mishra's The Dream Assembly, Padmavati Singh's Parallel Sky, S. S. Tharu's Virtual Reality etc.

Language and Linguistics

Varieties of language:

1. Dialect- spoken in one part of a country or by people belonging to a particular social class which is different in vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation from other forms of same lg.

2. Register- variety of lg used by a particular group of persons, usually sharing the same occupation or the same interest.

Register of linguistics- frozen (static register, refers to historic lg that is intended to remain unchanged like a constitution or prayer); formal (as used used in professional, academic, or legal settings where communication is expected to be respectful, uninterrupted, and restrained); consultative (used with someone having specialized knowledge or who is offering advice); casual (used with friends, close acquaintances and co-workers, and family); intimate (reserved for special occasions, usually between only two people and often in private)

Register of media- lg in the media sphere, or modern mass communication presented by print, audiovisual, digital, and networked media

Register of literature- it is very important for writers to know how to use the different vocabulary, punctuation, grammar, etc; the ability to maintain a consistent register in writing is a skill all writers need to master

Idiolect- lg system of an individual expressed by the way they speak or write within the overall system of a particular lg; two individuals might speak same lg differently

Theoretical linguistics- studies the lg principles in general; the main aim is the formulation of a general theory of the structure of lg or of a general theoretical framework for the description of lg

Applied linguistics- an interdisciplinary field that explores the lg-related problems

Langue- an abstract system of signs (underlying structure of a lg); not spoken by anyone

Parole- the individual expressions of lg (speech acts that are the products of langue)

Competence- internalized grammar of a lg; linguistic knowledge

Performance- linguistic behavior or use

Form- overall linguistic organization or structure of speech and writing; outer appearance

Substance- all distinct sounds produced by human speech organs and scripts

Function- use of lg in the context

Speech- phonic representation; primary lg skill; writing is based on it

Writing- graphic representation; reflection of speech; secondary lg skill

The Story of Prometheus- Greek Mythological Story

-Prometheus (meaning forethought) was son of Titan Iapetus and Oceanid Clymene.

-Titans are groups of gods before Olympian gods, residing on Mount Olympus.

-Titanomachy was a ten-year series of battles fought between Titans and Olympians.

-Prometheus was a cousin of Zeus (son of Cronus) and brother of Atlas, Moneotius and Epimetheus (afterthought)

-Athena is considered as the goddess of wisdom. She was born out of the head of Zeus.

-With the help of Athena, Prometheus created the very first humans from clay.

-When Prometheus served up the ox's bones, Zeus was annoyed and he denied man the power of fire. Again Athena revealed to Prometheus a hidden backstairs entrance to Olympus from where he stole the flame of eternal fire for his men.

-Helios is the god and personification of the sun.

-Angry Zeus, summoned from the Underworld the three ferocious Giants: Gyes, Cottus and Briareus, and had them take Prometheus to the highest peak of Mount Caucasus, and tied him there.

-Hermes is the messenger god.

-The Centaur (half man, half horse) named Chiron was accidentally shot and wounded by one of Hercules (or Heracles, son of Zeus; legendary heroes) poisoned arrows. Chiron volunteered to die instead of Prometheus.

-Hercules killed the eagle that was eating the liver of Prometheus.

-Pandora was the very first woman in history. She was foolishly accepted by Epimetheus. She opened the jar she had received from Hermes and the humans had all the sufferings afterwards.

The Seven Ravens- Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm

These writers are best known for Grimm's Fairy Tales (1812) that led to the birth of the modern study of folktales, which are enjoyed even now both by children and adults alike. 'The Seven Ravens' is a story of a sister's dedication and patience towards her brothers. There was once a man who had seven sons, and last of all one daughter. The little girl was so small and weak that fearing her death, the father sent his sons to fetch water to baptize her. In a hurry and competition among the boys, the pitcher falls into the well. Angrily, the father curses them all and they turn into ravens.

The girl knows about the truth after many years, and she sets out to search them. The morning star gives her a little piece of wood to use as a key to unlock the castle that stands on the glass-mountain, where her brothers live. Unfortunately she lost that key, but this faithful little sister used her little finger instead. As she meets a little dwarf and eats parts of her brothers' meal. The seven brothers become happy recognizing their sister with the help of their parents' ring, and together they go home back.

Three Questions- Leo Tolstoy

Tolstoy is a Russian writer, regarded as a master of realistic fiction. His writings are marked by great faith in God and respect for moral values. 'Three Questions' is a moral story in which a king is to find the answer to three questions. The king does not find answers from any learned scholars but finds them with a hermit while serving others. Here are the questions and answers:

1. What is the right time for every action? = Now is the time to do every action because now is the only time that we have power.

2. Who are the right people to be with? = The right person is who you are with.

3. What is the most important thing to do? = The most important thing to do is to do good for the person you are with.

The king proclaims that he would give a great reward to the person who can answer his three questions. A lot of learned men went for their answers. Unfortunately, their answers did not satisfy the king. So the king decided to consult a wise hermit. He saw the hermit digging the ground and out of compassion, he did it for the hermit. He kept on asking the three questions but the hermit also kept silent. The hermit saw a bearded man running and his hands on his stomach. He was wounded and dying; the hermit told the king about it and they helped the bearded man. The next day when the king wakes up, the bearded man apologizes to him. He admits that he is an enemy trying to kill the king.

Half a Day- Naguib Mahfouz

Egyptian writer Mahfouz is a controversial writer in the Islamic World. He rose in defense of Salman Rushdie when Iranian religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini announced the death sentence to Rushdie for his novel The Satanic Verses. 'Half a Day' begins with a little boy and his father. The young boy is the narrator, who is nervous on that first day to his school, although his father is cheerful and reassuring, remarking that the day represents an important step forward in life. The boy feels it a punishment tearing him away from the intimacy of his home. His anxiety only increases when he arrives at school, where he and the other children are divided into groups and welcomed by a woman who advises them to accept the school as their new home.

The narrator and the other students do so and find themselves enjoying their new environment; they attend classes, play games, nap, and make new friends. As time goes on, however, they realize that their new lives also involve a great deal of hard work and frustration. As sunset approaches, the narrator emerges from school expecting to find his father waiting for him as he promised. When his father doesn’t show up, he begins walking home on his own. After few steps, he is shocked seeing the entire place changed as there are cars and high buildings in place of gardens and fields, thus the city has changed dramatically since the morning. Increasingly alarmed and more desperate to reach home than ever, the narrator is trying to cross a busy street when a young boy approaches to help him, addressing him as “Grandpa.”

The Last Question -Isaac Asimov

Asimov is an American author and biochemist, a highly successful and prolific writer of science fiction. Man's uncontrolled longing for advancement will ultimately lead to the end of the universe, to the primordial (beginning) period when the cosmos itself is in chaos. 'The Last Question' presents a prophetic vision of scientific and technological development in 2061 when the new global supercomputer, Multivac is activated. Alexander and Bertram, two technicians take care of Multivac. They give it data and ask it questions, and translate the answers so that normal humans can understand them.

For many years, Multivact has helped humans design spaceships and create the maps for them to fly to the Moon, to Mars, to Venus. They can't fly beyond Venus, as the Earth doesn't have enough energy. Multivac has discovered the way to use energy from the sun, and hence the humans are more powerful than ever before. In response to Alexander's question 'How can the net amount of entropy (disorder) of the universe be massively decreased?', Multivac says 'Insufficient data for meaningful answer.'

The story jumps forward in time into later eras of human and scientific development. Each time that Multivac's descendant is asked that question: it finds itself unable to solve the problem. AC, Multivac's ultimate descendant, ponders the question, spends all data till it finds the answer, but there is nobody to report it to, since the universe is already dead. It looks over the empty universe, and says: LET THERE BE LIGHT! And there is light.

The Woman on Platform No. 8 -Ruskin Bond

Bond is an Indian author of British origin. This story is a realistic/naturalistic story in which he builds up a picture of a caring mother and gives a message that a mother figure is much more than the biological mother. It is narrated in the first person by a boy named Arun who is 12 years old. Arun travels to Ambala station and waits for a night train in the platform no. 8. It was quite difficult for him to pass the time, and suddenly he hears a soft voice from behind. It is a woman in white sari. She looks poor, pale and has dark kind eyes.

After a brief introduction, the woman invites Arun for some refreshment at the station dining room. She takes his hand and leads him away. Arun does not refuse the invitation as he feels it would be too impolite to reject it. The woman seems to take a pleasure in watching him eat. While eating he opens up and tells her about his school, his friends, his likes and dislikes. The woman speaks very little and listens to him intently. Arun's school fellow Satish, along with his mother, appears on the platform. Satish's mother tries to warn Arun to stay away from strangers but he replies that he likes strangers.

After some time, the train steams in. Satish and Arun board it. Satish's mother and the stranger stand on the platform talking to the boys. The train starts; Arun leans over the window, kisses that woman and also utters the farewell words- 'Good-bye Mother'. He continues to gaze at the woman until she disappears in the crowd.

Boys and Girls -Alice Munro

The short stories of this Canadian writer portray ordinary people and deal with the complexities in the emotional lives. They are noted for precise imagery and narrative style. Narrated from the perspective of a 11-year-old girl, 'Boys and Girls' tells s about the lives of a boy and a girl on a fox farm and shows how the girl discovers the roles of brother and sister change once they mature.

The narrator lives with her parents and younger brother, Laird. In that society, mothers have traditional roles, which usually engage them in the house, while men have their roles outside the house. The male is the dominant figure while the woman is to be subservient.  It is an off thing to see the mother down at the barn. 

The narrator clearly states that she never enjoys household work that her mother does, but her mother wants her to learn such stuffs. As the story progresses, we are introduced to two horses- an old black workhorse Mack and a young mare Flora. When it is time to kill it, Flora runs away, and the narrator lets the horse escape from the farm. Later at the dinner table, Laird complains about that incident and father asks her for the reason. Though she does not answer, tears flood her eyes. Seeing the daughter cry, her father says, 'She's only a girl' and she thinks maybe she is just a girl after all who can do nothing to change her life.

The Piece of String -Guy de Maupassant

Maupassant is a French novelist and short story writer who often writes about human selfishness, wickedness, spite and greed. 'The Piece of String' is a realistic/naturalistic story in which the protagonist- Maitre Hauchecorne is falsely accused of stealing a wallet. The entire story explores how social stigma thrives at the cost of the victim's suffering.

Hauchecorne stoops over one day to pick up a piece of string from the street. When he sees he is being observed by his enemy Malandain, he is embarrassed to be caught taking something as insignificant as a bit of string, so that he pretends he is looking for something else. From the start, therefore, Hauchecorne is characterized as crafty and deceitful, misleading others about his intentions. Later, when a purse containing 500 francs goes missing, Malandain accuses Hauchecorne of stealing it.

Even after the purse is found with the entire amount still in it, the peasants in the town believe Hauchecorne stole it. They believe an accomplice dropped the purse to clear Hauchercorne of the crime. The peasants think that he was, perhaps, capable of having done what they accused him of and even of boasting of it as a good trick.

The more people accuse him, the more Hauchercorne insists he is innocent, becoming more and more elaborate and obsessed with his defense, which, ironically, leads him to be more and more disbelieved. And like the boy who cried wolf, he has such a history of craftiness and deceit that even when he is innocent, people believe he is guilty. His past comes back to haunt him, he becomes more and more the butt of peasant ridicule, and eventually some months later sickens and dies.

The Cactus -O'Henry

William Sydney Porter, known as O'Henry is a prolific American short-story writer. Like most of his stories, 'The Cactus' also has an abrupt ending. The reason, why Trysdale had a break up with his beloved, remains in suspense till the end of the story. The main character, Trysdale is in love with a girl but he deceives her into believing that he knows Spanish language, actually to impress her. When he proposes her for marriage, she tells him that she would reply the next day. She sends her reply with the cactus bearing a tag “Ventomarme” as its botanical name.

As the story begins, Trysdale has just left a wedding and is reflecting on his past relationship with the bride. Although he is a healthy, happy man who is very much loved and respected by his girlfriend, Trysdale fails to understand the message from his girlfriend and waits for the response from her. He thought the tag on the plant was nothing. Both of them are in illusion and suffer from internal conflict. Finally the girl decides not to marry him because of his egoism, whereas the boy simply thinks that the cactus symbolizes rejection. He leaves the girl, feels annoyed, and becomes unhappy. Things are not always what they seem. At the end of the story, his friend, the girl's brother tells that the meaning of the Spanish word 'Ventamorme' is 'Come and take me' which is indeed worth a dozen love letters.

Simulacra -Julio Cortazar

Cortazar, is an Argentine novelist and short-story writer, who combines existential questioning with experimental writing techniques. 'Simulacra' is plural of a simulacrum, meaning a representation or imitation of a person or thing. Postmodernist French social theorist Jean Baudrillard argues that a simulacrum is not a copy of the real, but becomes truth in its own right; the hyperreal. In this Meta-fiction, the author imagines of a family that decides to build and elaborate gallows in their front yard. The action of making gallows brings all their family together. But the construction of the secret structure causes curiosity alarm, annoyance and expectation among their neighborhoods. They protest and even threat the narrator’s family. The narrator lives with his parents and sisters in a large and extended family even with uncle, aunt and cousin.

Whether real or imaginary the story is a meta-fiction describing a real issue of fiction that anything new is not easily accepted. Uncommon things are not accepted easily. In the end of the story Simulacra, the narrator and his family got a relief with the completion of the creative work that is a meta-fictional work or a Simulacra or a dream work for wonderful fiestas, elephant and silk suits. Building a gibbet and gallows was an inevitable work or surprise or scandal for the neighbors. They were worried and stood in the surrounding and even in the railings to watch than to the platform work. Till late hours, they stay there wondering all around with bad looks and threats.

Letter of Christopher Columbus: On His First Voyage to America, 1492

Columbus was born in Italy and served the Spanish King Ferdinand II in his career as a navigator. Although many groups like Vikings had already been to the Americas much earlier, Columbus has been called the discoverer of the New World. The present letter is one of the early writings of Columbus in which he describes new people of the New World. The letter shows how mesmerized (hypnotized) he was because of the unpolluted and unmediated (not communicated) environment of the newly discovered islands.

Columbus aims to demonstrate that he has taken possession of these new lands for his King. This is highlighted by the subsequent renaming of various islands. Columbus also intends to reassure all that the lands are fertile and rich with gold. Columbus argues that the inhabitants are inherently timid people. In addition to this, Columbus observes that his crew members and other sailors take advantage of the natives’ naivety and kind-heartedness. In his opinion this taking advantage is wrong and he goes on to forbid his men from dealing unfairly with the natives.

This letter is addressed to the monarchs in Spain as his voyage had been financed by the monarchy. From the statements made by Columbus, it can safely be assumed that there were other voyages to the Indies before his. These voyages brought home tales of violent tribes and inhospitable lands. Columbus refutes these claims and says that his voyage was a victory. He also insists that the stories told about the lands were baseless and mostly lies.

Throughout his expedition, Columbus seeks to convert the natives to his Christian faith demonstrating that he regards the natives’ religion as inferior and based on error. The letter was mainly aimed at highlighting the success of his voyage. Columbus envisions another voyage and asserts that the newfound land contains treasures for Spain and a lot of people to be converted to the holy faith of Christianity.

Of Studies- Francis Bacon

Known as a Renaissance man, Francis Bacon is an English philosopher, lawyer, statesman, scientist and man of letters. He is known as the father of English essays. He emulated the tradition of writing essays from French writer Montaigne. His essays are written in the aphoristic (brief statement of a scientific principle) style and they are short, sharp and full of wisdom. 'Of Studies' is a short and witty essay. Bacon shows how study matters in a man's life. Every sentence of this essay reads like a quotation.

For Bacon, the study is always related to the application of knowledge in practical life. At the beginning of his essay, Bacon describes the three main purposes of study including delight, decoration and ability. The author has the notion that only learned and well-read men can execute plans effectively, manage their daily affairs with expertise and lead a healthy and stable life. He further states that reading makes a full man; conference leads to a ready man while writing makes an exact-man.

He also condemns the act of studying from books solely without learning from nature around. At the same time, it asserts the benefits of studies by considering this act as a medicine for the defects of the human mind and the source of enhancing one’s wit. For Bacon, some books are only meant to be tasted; others are there to swallow while some books are meant for chewing and digesting properly. Therefore, the readers must choose wisely before studying any book to enhance their knowledge about the world around.

Bacon concludes his essay by suggesting that studies assist an individual in removing the defects of their mind as every problem of the human mind carries special importance for the individual and the world.

A Piece of Chalk -Gilbert Keith Chesterton

Chesterton is an English critic, poet, short story writer and essayist. In this anecdotic essay, we have the theme of desire, prudence, resilience, happiness, independence and ingenuity. Chesterton wishes to walk out on the fields and do some drawing. The only problem is that he has no brown paper and he has to ask his landlady for it. He sees it pointless to draw the landscape and is much more interested in drawing other things. Things that he thinks are more valuable and are more realistic to his needs. When he has no white chalk, he breaks pieces of rock and begins to draw the sky.

What is also interesting is how determined Chesterton is to not paint a landscape like the masters who have come before him. It takes a person a while to understand what has been drawn. Without a landscape the drawing may look no more like doodles and ever the perfection Chesterton draws the sky white by using the pieces of rock. He knows he has no choice but to do so but the abundance of the white rock around him in the field is ideal for his purposes. Giving his drawing the shape it needs and hopefully a fuller explanation to those who view the drawing. So happy is Chesterton after he finishes sketching a whole day sitting on a hill of southern England. He may have started out without a piece of white chalk but the end is different. Through his ingenuity and resilience Chesterton has managed to finish his drawing. A drawing the he himself is proud of and one expects that others will be proud of too. Last sentence of the essay brings him wisdom that the entire hill is made up of chalk.

An Encounter with a Dog -Padma Prasad Devkota

Devkota is a Nepalese essayist who has contributed to literary creation bilingually. This is a narrative/argumentative essay in which the essayist expresses his resentments not towards the dog which bit him but towards the owner who looked indifferent at the behavior of the dog. He is furious at the owner for not showing any realization or guilt when his guest was bitten by his dog. Some people find pleasure in humiliating others or putting others down. We can't stop them so that, if it bothers you, walk away to avoid or ignore such persons. Such abusive people just believe in manipulation to cause their victim to act almost as if they are under a spell, making them do things they ordinarily would not.

The essay begins with the writer's expression of pride of achievements of his father who is the Great Poet Laxmi Prasad Devkota. He includes the incident of his father replying the Raja of Salyan that he was in the habit of reading the lines of his books in his dreams. Later the writer got an appointment with the one of the five grandsons of the Raja of Salyan. During the same visit, a black dog bit him. He wondered why, knowing the dog so well, Mr. Shah did not leash it properly or lock it up in the kennel before receiving him into his compound. He writes that he had finally learnt a lesson the hard way. He realizes that he should have known that human beings always disappoint us by their pretensions at superiority. The rereading of 'Pleasure in Humiliation' is a great part indeed.

The Silk Road in World History by Alfred J. Andrea

Andrea from USA has visited China multiple times to make research on the Silk Road, a trans-Eurasian network of trade routes connecting different parts of Asia and Europe, which flourished from roughly 100 BCE (Before the Common Era) to around 1450 AD. This essay is his research article, which has been edited to suit the classroom purpose. Everyone takes for granted that globalization is a recent phenomenon but it started with the operation of the Silk Road, transporting goods and ideas between the two great civilizations of Rome and China. Silk went westward, and wools, gold, and silver went east. China also received Christianity and Buddhism via this link.

The German geographer Ferdinand von Richthofen coined the words Silk Road in 1877. The Silk Roads were the multiple caravan tracts of about 6,400 km between imperial Rome and Han China along which the precious commodity of silk traveled. Sir Aurel Stein, Sir Leonard Woolley and others contributed in the phase of discovering and recovering the treasures of the Silk Road. For merchants, pilgrims, missionaries, soldiers, diplomats, and others using these routes, the Buddhist cave-shrines were places of rest, and exposures to Dunhuang's rich multi-culture environment. The Diamond Sutra is supposed to be the world's oldest-known, intact printed book. There is the wealth of Silk Road art and records scattered about in museums and libraries in Europe, Asia, and America.

The second phase of institutionalizing the Silk Road began in the initiation of UNESCO in 1988 creating a ten-year multidisciplinary project titled 'Integral Study of the Silk Roads: Roads of Dialogue'. International Dunhuang Project (IDP- 1994) has taken on the mission to publish information and images of all manuscripts, paintings, textiles and artifacts. Likewise the Silkroad Foundation has been furthering Silk Road studies, in addition to sponsoring seminars and scholarly expeditions and archaeological surveys.

Getting in Touch with Aliens -Stephen William hawking

Hawking is an English theoretical physicist whose theory of exploding black holes drew upon both relativity theory and quantum mechanics. In the present essay, he analyzes the possibility of getting in touch with extraterrestrial beings (the aliens). As a scientist, he discards some possibilities and suggests that only radio waves might lead human beings to get in touch with aliens if they really exist. Unfortunately, SETI (the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) has failed to find a single, sure peep from the skies. He writes about the possibility that the aliens may use pictures or even mathematics to communicate, but even a simple 'Hello?' and its response 'Zork?' would take twenty centuries!

‘The idea that we are alone in the universe seems to me completely implausible and arrogant,’ he said. ‘Considering the number of planets and stars that we know exist, it’s extremely unlikely that we are the only form of evolved life'. He also teamed up with Russian billionaire Yuri Milner for a series of projects focused on finding alien life – one of which could lead us to explore another star system for the first time. The Star-shot Initiative envisages sending tiny light-propelled robot spacecraft on a 20-year voyage to the Alpha Centauri star system. Hawking said that such a mission might be our only chance of survival – saying in 2017 that that soaring population and demands for energy will turn the world into a sizzling ball of fire by 2600. His Breakthrough Star-shot project could be the first step on the way. ‘I believe that life on Earth is at an ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster such as sudden nuclear war, a genetically engineered virus, or other dangers,’ he said. ‘I think the human race has no future if it doesn’t go into space.’

Our House is on Fire -Greta Thunberg

Greta is a Swedish environment activist who worked to address the problem of climate change, founding a movement known as Fridays for Future (also called School Strike for Climate) in 2018. This sixteen-year-old girl has sparked a worldwide student movement and she is demanding action from world leaders in response to global warming. This particular text is a speech she delivered at the World Economic Forum in Switzerland in 2019. She was inspired by her teacher explaining to her class that our climate is changing- the earth is getting warmer, the polar ice caps are melting, and life on earth is threatened. So she went on strike, skipping school every Friday to sit outside of the Swedish Parliament building with a sign that read “School Strike for Climate.”

Greta is speaking to audiences of world leaders at important meetings putting forward the finding of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) that we are already late for undoing our mistakes such as reduction of our CO2 emissions. She charges all political movements and even the media as failing to create broad public awareness, but she is optimistic about solving the climate crisis. According to her, we can create transformational action that will safeguard the living conditions for future generations. Understanding of our rapidly disappearing carbon budget should and must become our new global currency. The bigger our carbon footprint, the bigger is our moral duty. She wants us all to act wisely.

She is leading the conversation on climate change and sparking worldwide conversation on how to save our planet. Greta is showing everyone that even the smallest person can make a big difference, and this picture book informs and inspires young readers who are beginning to learn about the world around them.

Why I Write -Joan Didion

Didion is an American novelist and essayist. This is an argumentative essay in which the title is borrowed from George Orwell. Orwell has listed sheer egoism, aesthetic enthusiasm, historical impulse, and political purpose as four motives for writing. In her entire essay, Didion tries to build up a rationale for why someone has to write. She describes the way she writes by using some images in her mind, and wants us to understand how writing works for her. A person does not have to be “good” or “bad” at writing. Everyone has their own way of ideas, words and emotions which makes every piece of writing unique. When she writes her novel, she does not use the sequence of time or character.

Her way of writing is by her own imagination. When she starts to write she goes off by the pictures in her mind and goes from there. We can assume that she is a visual learner. I now know that a person has to find their own way to write their words. Writers just have to put their effort into the piece of writing and go all into it.

The overall purpose for this essay is just to show readers that each and every one of us have our own kind of way to start writing something. Not everybody has to be intelligent in order to be a writer. She just wants us to be passionate about our ideas, thoughts and words. Actually, Didion's writing is powerful in several ways: aesthetically, journalistically, psychologically, morally, and politically. She can also be read as an existentialist.

Pandemic and After -Govinda Raj Bhattarai

Bhattarai is a Nepalese novelist, essayist, literary critic, linguist, and translation expert. This essay is the writer's perception of nature towards the confrontation between human civilizations and the natural world. His optimism is that despite so many crises, humanity will always turn out to be victorious. He states that COVID 19 has caused the greatest loss of life and disturbed our psychology since the devastation of World War II. Though he has included about the corona viruses, he states that such information are not yet enough to determine how easily this virus spreads. Then he concludes COVID 19 as something of a wild card in terms of how far it will spread and how many deaths it will cause.

The word 'pandemic' is derived from Greek where the prefix 'pan' stands for 'all' and 'demos' stands for 'people'. Corona viruses are a large family of viruses that can cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. A 'novel' corona virus is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans. It seems to be transmitted mainly via respiratory droplets when people sneeze, cough, or exhale.

This pandemic has already begun to change the world by changing the human imagination. It had diverted the track of current civilization and of course, challenged the nature of education system. Already some new terms have been introduced such as quarantine, lockdown, isolation, tracking, hotspot, disinfectant, including many abbreviations such as RDT, PCR, VTM, PEP, etc. The essayist calls us to be prepared for a major turning point in world history.

The World's Desire -EV Lucas

Lucas is a versatile and prolific British author, well-known for his gentle satire and humor. This essay is written on Charlie Chaplin, the most popular comic actor in the age of the silent movie. It starts with the event when Charlie refused a large sum of money offered for signing an agreement in New York. He was the funniest man on earth, who works hard for the days and nights to maintain the standard of his performance. Nevertheless, Charlie seldom wins, he remains a victim of circumstances, although nothing can discourage or deter him. His very essence is resiliency under difficulties and challenges.

Charlie became worldwide icon through his screen persona, The Tramp, and is considered one of the most important figures in the history of the film industry. His career spanned more than 75 years, and encompassed both adoration and controversy. His childhood in London was one of poverty and hardship. He went to America at the age of 19 and he was one of the best-known figures in the world by the age of 29. The Kid, A Woman of Paris, The Gold Rush, The Circus, City Lights, Modern Times, and Great Dictator are some of his films. The 1940s were a decade marked with controversy for Chaplin, who was forced to leave the United States and settle in Switzerland till his death.

There is no doubt that Charlie is funny. He brought back the admirable form of humor in a variety of ways. His films are characterized by slapstick combined with pathos, typified with the Tramp's struggles against adversity. Many contain social and political themes, as well as autobiographical elements. His final home in Switzerland has been converted into a museum named 'Chaplin's World'.

Sonnet 18: Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer Day? - William Shakespeare

It is known that Shakespeare was an actor and dramatist by 1592. He has written 37 plays. He wrote a total of 154 sonnets; the first 126 addressed to his beloved young friend WH (William Herbert or Henry Wriothesley). Shakespearean sonnets contain three quatrains and one couplet with rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef gg. His sonnets praise the beauty of nature and natural beings. The theme of this sonnet is the permanence and supremacy of love. The poet gives an assurance of poetic immortality, love and friendship.

This sonnet claims that WH is more beautiful than the summer’s day and is also as immortal as Shakespeare’s sonnet. The poet thinks that his love is incomparable. In summer, the stormy winds weaken the charming rosebuds and the health and happiness are short-lived. Even the sun rays are often dim and the beauty of every beautiful thing decreases naturally. But the charm of the poet’s love will never decline. Death will never enjoy its victory over his friend because the poet’s verse will remain immortal. His friend may die physically, but his intellectual and spiritual beauty shall remain in the eternal poem.

In this poem, the idea is developed in the three quatrains and the conclusion is imbedded in the couplet. The poet concludes with the truth that art can really immortalize people. Time and death can’t wipe out one’s existence forever. There is rhetorical question in the first line, and that is asked merely for the effect rather than expecting any answer. The use of 'eye of heaven' in reference to 'sun' is metonymy, where one word or phrase is substituted for another. Likewise the repeated word 'And' at the beginning of verse lines is called anaphora, and the repeated term 'more' with two intervening words is called diacope.

The Flea- John Donne

Donne is a famous Elizabethan and Renaissance poet born in London. He is one of the leading members of the metaphysical school of poetry. He used complex thought, paradoxes, diverse imagery, and conceits in his poetry. He is also criticized for his harsh tone and rigid expression. The present poem is about a youth persuading his beloved using different tactics. The fusion of the three lives in a flea is a great image he used in the poem.

The speaker uses the occasion of a flea hopping from himself to a young lady as an excuse to argue that the two of them should make love. Since in the flea their blood is mixed together, he says that they have already been made as one in the body of the flea. Besides, the flea pricked her and got what it wanted without having to woo her. The flea’s bite and mingling of their bloods is not considered a sin, so why should their love-making?

In the second stanza the speaker attempts to prevent the woman from killing the flea. He argues that since the flea contains the “life” of both herself and the speaker, she would be guilty both of suicide and a triple homicide in killing it. The woman in question is obviously not convinced, for in the third stanza she has killed the flea with a fingernail. The speaker then turns this around to point out that, although the flea which contained portions of their lives, is dead, neither of them is the weaker for it. If this commingling of bodily fluids can leave no lasting effect, then why does she hesitate to join with him in sexual intimacy? After all, her honor will be equally undiminished.

Five Haikus- Matsuo Basho

Basho is the son of a low-rank samurai from Japan. He learned haikai no renga, a form of cooperative poetry with 5-7-5 mora format, which is now known as haiku, that gives a pictorial image of the situation or person. Basically, it is used to reflect the existing problems with contrastive images. The haikus by Basho give a clear picture of the situation. The first line exposes the situation, the second line shows the contrastive scene and the third line tries to sum it up with bizarre situation.

In Basho's Death Poem, the body fails but the thoughts persist wandering through the lonely withered lands. The haiku titled 'By the Old Temple' seems like Senryu for treating human nature in an ironic or satiric vein, but its 5-3-5 unit sounds come from the English translation. The man threshing paddy is indifferent to beauty of flower. 'I'm a Wanderer' strangely associates winter rain with a traveler. 'The Butterfly' has pleasant smell from the orchid. Likewise, 'The Whole Family' refers to the O-Bon festival, a commemoration of the dead. Autumn is the time of declining Yang- of the waning of life and things aging.

Basho aspired to reflect his real environment and emotions in his hokku. Following the Zen philosophy he studied, Basho attempted to compress the meaning of the world into the simple pattern of his poetry, disclosing hidden hopes in small things and showing the interdependence of all objects. One term frequently used to describe Basho's poetry is sabi, which means the love of the old, the faded, and the unobtrusive, a quality found in the verse.

On the Grasshopper and the Cricket - John Keats

Keats is an English poet prominent in the second generation of Romantic poets, whose verse is known for its vivid imagery and great sensuous appeal. Also in this romantic poem, the poet enjoys the natural beauty and joys of singing by both the insects even in the extreme difficulties of the seasons. This is a fine piece of Petrarchan sonnet.

The poet symbolizes the grasshopper as hot summer and the cricket as a very cold winter. The grasshopper sings tirelessly during the summer flying from the hedge, whereas the cricket sings through the stones during the winter. During the hot season, all the singing birds are tired and take rest under the shady branches of trees, but even if they don't sing, the song of the nature goes on. A grasshopper carries on the duty of praising the everlasting beauty of nature, and proves it a fun-loving and cheerful creature, never done with his eternal joy and delights. Likewise, there is utter silence on the frosty winter days but the earth has its own way of expressing pleasure and joys. The song of a cricket can be heard which breaks this silence, and expresses warmth and love.

Thus, we can say that the grasshopper and cricket, two tiny insects, perform a big responsibility. They carry on with nature's continuous and everlasting music irrespective of the extreme climates. The poet has thus personified them in this symbolic poem, teaching us that we should be joyful and pleasant no matter what are the situations in our life. With this attitude, we can easily overcome all the obstacles in life.

Home They Brought Her Warrior Dead- Alfred Lord Tennyson

Tennyson is the Poet Laureate during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets, and often regarded as the chief representative of the Victorian age of poetry. In the given poem, the narrator lets the lady show her reaction towards her husband's death in the war. She is silent until she reaches to the corpse, but the tranquility breaks abruptly by the tempest of her tears, and she expresses her reaction.

The third-person narrative allows the reader to see the widow's reaction from an outside perspective. The reader, therefore, identifies with the rest of the crowd of gathered people and experiences the same concern for the widow. The last stanza reveals that she is also a mother, who would have to raise the child alone.

In the beginning, the woman's grief is so overwhelming, she cannot even cry. Her friends believed that if she did not grieve, the pain she refused to let out would eventually kill her. As in many instances of death, the bystanders praised the dead man, but no amount of reminiscence seemed to bring tears to the widow's eyes. One of her friend shows her the face of her late husband, hoping that this will help the woman to break out of her state of shock. Actually she has been paralyzed with fear at the thought of her poor child. It was not until she saw the child's nurse set the child upon her knee that she burst forth in uncontrollable tears.

This is Just to Say- William Carlos Williams

The notable American poet and writer of the 20th century, Williams is famous for his style of presenting the simple things in a crafty way. The present poem 'This is Just to Say' is an example of a casual poem without proper rhyme, rhythm, punctuation, or metrical composition. Through this poem, Williams tries to experiment with the day to day conversations as poem. This three stanza poem narrated in first-person is separated into sets of four lines, or quatrains. There are two instances of capitalization though. The 'I' at the beginning of line one and 'Forgive' in the first line of the last stanza.

Without any formal beginning, the poet says that he has eaten the plums from the fridge. The short lines or halting speech pattern suggests about an apology for eating those plums saved by the wife for breakfast. The line breaks of this free verse are systematically scattered throughout the short narrative and all the words are arranged for the greatest impact.

Breakfast is a rich image. It shows that the time is that of the morning and his wife might not be in the kitchen. When he saw the plums and thought about what they'd taste like, he couldn't resist. His apology in the first line is quickly followed up by three excuses. The plums 'were delicious' and were 'so sweet' and 'so cold'. He hopes that his apology and the reasoning he provided with be enough to make his listener forgive him. The final lines also depict human nature. We know that we do the wrong things in spite of knowing well that it is wrong and the simple reason we give is that we could not control ourselves. The lines, in a deeper sense, can refer to the story of Adam and Eve.

United Fruit Co. - Pablo Neruda

Neruda is the famous Chilean poet and diplomat. His poem 'United Fruit Co.' is the real name of an American imperial company for banana trade in the Middle American countries. Linking with Biblical myth, Neruda shows the superiority complex of the American company and their domination and discrimination in various economic activities to the people in their colonies. Neruda seems to be familiar with the avant-garde (ultramodern) and some have even pointed to Surrealism in his work. Nonetheless, whatever else might have played a hand, Neruda offered a strong opinion and commented and contrasted in inimitable ways.

United Fruit Co. is a descriptive narrative of the impact of a multinational cooperation on Central America. It goes into depth on how the United Fruit Company had been blessed with something but has used it to curse the people. It can be seen as providing social commentary on an ongoing situation at that time. However, the poem may also have proved to serve as a warning to Neruda’s Chilean government. It must have told them to be weary of the promise of hope from multinational co-operations. Even in the wider scope, it must have also warned his South American peers of what has happen to Central America. As aforementioned Neruda never saw himself being loyal to a specific school of poetry, his work spanned many schools and periods of poetry. United Fruit Co. was published in the book Canto General which Neruda completed while exile. Persuaded by political occurrences such as his leftist affiliations, he attempts to break out of the elitism of Spanish poetry and create a contemporary political commentary. For this reason, it is seen as a post modernistic work.

In Memory of WB Yeats -WH Auden

Wystan Hugh Auden is a famous 20th century British poet, and playwright. He experimented with different forms of poetry and was successful in most of them. This poem exposes the imaginary life after death and the human condition. With powerful images and themes, Auden describes the events of Yeats' life and death. Different images are used in the poem.

Auden uses an exacting tone and direct language to depict the events around Yeats' death. The first part of the poem addresses the last days of Yeats' life and what it was like right after he died. Auden speaks on the loss and how it impacted the world. The second section is directed, through a second person speaker, to Yeats himself. While the third is an elegy meant to sum up that which was spoken about previously but also make new statements about what poetry can do for humankind.

The environment reflects the coldness of death: rivers are too frozen to run; hardly anyone travels by air; statues of public figures are disfigured by snow. At the same time, far away, wolves run and the peasant river flows, implying that the poems live even though the poet may be dead. Here, we can sense Auden making a broader point about the mortality of poets: they survive or don't survive depending on who reads them, and how those readers read them. Poetry itself survives in the midst of everything flowing out from isolated safety and providing voice to humanity. As of the intentional fallacy or death of author, the worth and meaning of a writer lie with the reader. We cannot help but change the meaning of what a poet wrote, adapting it to suit out our times and our own feelings. In conclusion, this is a powerful poem not just about Yeats but about all poets whose work can teach us how to praise.

Still I Rise -Maya Angelou

A multi-talented lady known as author, poet, historian, songwriter, playwright, dancer, stage and screen producer, director, performer, singer, and civil right activist, Angelou was born in the USA. The present poem 'Still I Rise' exposes her revolutionary voice against the traditional dominating system of the powerful people upon the powerless ones. Though there are many fences to stop her beauty and existence, she rises with hope and optimism. This is an empowering poem about the struggle to overcome prejudice and injustice. This becomes a kind of anthem, a beacon of hope for the oppressed and downtrodden.

It is a reminder of the abuse of power by those who sit in government, the judiciary, the military, and the police force. For members of the public, it sends out the clear, repeated message of hope. No matter the circumstances, there must always be hope to cling to. This stirring poem is packed full of figurative language. The message is loud, universal and clear—no matter the cruelty, regardless of method and circumstance, the victim will rise up, and the slave will overcome adversity.

This poem includes 43 lines in total, made up of seven quatrains and two end stanzas which help reinforce the theme of individual hope, with the phrase "I rise" being repeated in mantra fashion. This is aimed at the oppressor. If this poem were a sculpture, it would have a granite plinth to stand on. The natural imagery is far-reaching and the voice is loud. In this poem, there are moons and suns, tides and black oceans. There is a clear daybreak and ancestral gifts, all joining together in a crescendo of hope.

Lady Lazarus -Sylvia Plath

Plath is a notable American poet and novelist of the 20th century. She was also an active feminist activist. Through the present poem, she expresses her inner feeling of suicidal attempts. It was published two years after her death by suicide. It is known as one of "Holocaust poems".  She faces death once every decade: the first was an accident and the second a failed attempt. At the end of the poem, when the speaker experiences the unwanted rebirth, she is represented by the image of a phoenix (a mythical bird that is burned alive and then reborn in the ashes). This next decade will be different for the speaker because she plans to 'eat' the men, in this case doctors, so they cannot revive her next time she faces death. Death to her was the best possible event during the time of her husband's bad treatment.

She believes that "Dying is an art, like everything else," and that she does it very well. Each time, "it feels real," and is easy for her. What is difficult is the dramatic comeback, the return to the same place and body, occurring as it does in broad daylight before a crowd's cry of "A miracle!" In the final lines, she addresses the listener as "Herr Doktor" (for doctor because they continue to bring her back to life when all she wants is to finally die) and "Herr Enemy," sneering that she is his crowning achievement. The speaker describes her unsuccessful attempts at committing suicide not as failures, but as successful resurrections, as of the biblical character Lazarus (who was brought back to life by Jesus). By the end of the poem, the speaker has transformed into a firebird, which some critics liken to a demonic transformation.

She is Not Dead -Shreedhar Prasad Lohani

Lohani is a renowned academic figure in and outside Nepal. 'She is Not Dead' is a short poem in which he uses several images to expose inner love and trust on the narrator's beloved. Love beyond life is a constant poetic theme, and romantic love has inspired poets for centuries. Such a love is complicated and capable of eliciting strong emotion, from elation to heartbreak. This poem reminds the Platonic love that concerns rising through levels of closeness to wisdom and true beauty, from carnal attraction to individual bodies to attraction to souls, and eventually, union with the truth.

If a writer loves you, you can never die. Your love will be described more vividly than you could ever imagine. The feelings you have for each other will live and breathe. If a writer loves you, you will always exist. Your name will be permanently etched into paper, your physical descriptions printed in ink. You will flourish in their writing. They see and feel every details- they remember them, they treasure them.

Of course, this poet has kept his lover alive, eternally. He denies her death, in the pretext of her living desires, memories of complete satisfaction and joys. Only the earthly pleasures transform into the heavenly ones. Instead, the endless symphonies fill the mind and within such an infinite vision shine the bliss. St. Augustine famously called the eyes 'the windows to the soul'. Hence, the lover resides into the soul through her lover's eyes, as expressed in this romantic poem.

The Bistro Styx -Rita Dove

Dove is a famous African American poet of the present century. This is a poem with a mythical linkage. There is a myth of the river Styx, known as the river of forgetfulness. It says that the dead ones have to cross the river to reach the world of the dead. If one drinks water from this river, they forget everything of previous life. According to ancient Greek myth, Persephone becomes half living and half dead after eating the seeds of pomegranate.

The present poem has the theme of love of excessive eating and drinking at the restaurant which has the narrator lose her daughter forever. The daughter eats and drinks so much that she forgets everything and the mother finally calls for the bill instead of her own daughter. The poem begins with a narration of the mother who is waiting for her daughter. In her description of her daughter and in the conversation between mother and daughter, we can sense the trouble in the relationship which often results in communication gap. The readers can observe artificiality in the daughter’s manner of clothing and an accent. Daughter was dressed in gray skirt which is symbolic of the death of human emotion and sensibility.

The daughter’s drinking of wine resembles the dead drinking water from Styx. The daughter has forgotten her relation, life in the village, tradition and rural values. As in Mythopoeia reality, this poetry explores postmodern society in the mythical background. Modern daughters are not being abducted by Hades (the god of the underworld, the first-born son of the Titans Cronus and Rhea in Greek mythology) but in the name of career, job, personality they are themselves abducted.

Chitra- Rabindranath Tagore

Tagore was born in India. The story adapted from the Mahabharat, Chitra is a one-act play, in which Chitra, the daughter of the King Chitravahan hires beauty for one year with god Madan, enjoys her youth and beauty with Arjun but reveals her true identity to Arjun at the end of the play. Madan is the god of love just like Eros of Greek, whereas Vasant is the god of springtime and eternal youth just like Lycoris of Greek. Arjun is the third son of Pandav from Hastinapur, and Babruvahan is the son of Arjun and Chitrangad. Draupadi (princess of Panchal), Subhadra (little sister of Lord Krishna), Ulupi (princess of Nagas), and Chitrangad (princess of Manipur) are the wives of Arjun.

During the period of exile, Arjun meets Chitra, whose ancestor was Prabhanjan. Childless Prabhanjan undertook severe austerities to obtain offspring, and finally, Mahadev granted him the boon that each successive descendant of his race should have one child. As Chitravahan, unlike his ancestors, had not a son, but a daughter, he made her a 'Putrika' meaning that a son, born of her, would be his successor. Chitra falls in love with Arjun at the first sight but she was dressed in man's attire and she knew no feminine wiles for winning hearts, of course the play of eyes.

Chitra has the perfect beauty and charm for a year with the blessings of Madan and Vasant. We find that Chitra had to go through the painful journey in order to obtain Arjuna as husband. She has been shattered many times in this struggle but she stood firm in her decision and at the end became successful in her endeavors by her unstoppable efforts. She is woman and a mother, and Arjuna is content; he says, simply, “Beloved, my life is full”.

Chitra was a terror for evil-doers and a father and mother to her people. She is a man in valor (bravery), and a woman in tenderness. She is obsessed and unfulfilled. She seems to Arjun like a Goddess hidden within a golden image. She brought from the garden of heaven flower of incomparable beauty with which to worship her hero. Chitra impressed and enthralled (absorbed) Arjun in love with the borrowed perfect beauty. She possessed Arjun and his love by the grace of gods. When she is aware about the borrowed beauty, she hates herself and feels as cheater of Arjun. She requests god to take back the boon (advantage) because her own body became her enemy.

Then Arjun loves, marries and stays with Chitra for three years. When Chitra gave birth to a son, Arjun embraces her affectionately and takes leave of her and her father to resume his wanderings. After the battle of Mahabharat, Yudhisththir becomes the king who conducts Ashvamedh Yagna. Babruvahan stops the decorated horse and fights with Arjun, who identifies him as his son only after being defeated.

The Song of Death- Tawfiq Al-Hakim

Tawfiq is the founder of contemporary Egyptian drama and a leading figure in modern African literature. 'The Song of Death' is his realistic play dealing with the theme of serial murders and blind revenge. It shows that if a person becomes obsessed with vengeance motif, they forget what rational is. It is a play that revolves around revenge, family ties and forgiveness. In amidst all these conflicts a mother kills her only child losing all that she has to live for and the only hope to avenge her husband’s death. The play was presented in classical Arabic which the audience found it both appealing and challenging at the same time, but necessary to keep the spirit and originality of the play.

The play is about a woman (Asaker) who sends her only child (Ilwan or Alwan) to live in Cairo after her husband has been killed, hoping that he would grow up to revenge his father's murderer. She saved his life making everyone believe he had died. However,  despite the mother’s hopes, the kid grows up to become a religious man in Al Azhar and refuses to kill the man who killed his father and confronts her that she lives in an ignorance of wrong traditions. The mother angry at her son orders his cousin (Sumeida, Mabrouka's son) to kill him to wash away what she calls the family’s sin.

After a 17 year-long wait, Asakir wishes her son Ilwan to take revenge for the murder of her husband by a rival family, but to her dismay, Ilwan has learnt the ways of violence not being the answer and tells her that he cannot complete such task. Asakir she expects Ilwan to fulfill his familial duties and stab Suweilam Tahawi, the man who killed his father. Angered by the son's response, she Asakir asks Sumeida to kill the head of the rival family as well as his own son Ilwan for disowning to avenge. Shortly after giving Sumeida these orders, her sister-in-law, Mabrouka helps her to realize what she has done was wrong.

Mohammed Fairouz has produced 'Sumeida's Song' based on Tawfiq's 'Song of Death'. This 3-act opera follows the return of Ilwan to his peasant village, and his attempts to bring modernity to darkness in an effort to break a never ending cycle of violence. Sumeida's Song breaks new ground in the interweaving of different Arab modes with new microtonal systems derived from those modes. The music is highly charged, melodic, dramatic, intuitive, and terrifying.

The Boor- Anton Chekhov

Chekhov is a Russian playwright and master of the modern short story. 'The Boor' is a farce comedy concerning two landowners in a Russian village. Probing down the human psychology of attraction towards the opposite sex, Chekhov says that people can fall in love with each other transcending their environment. It is a play about the fickleness of feelings and commitment. It tells about how faithful a woman, even her husband has died. Her faithfulness and personality attracts Smirnov, even it has been a confrontation, duel, and insulting each other. The main problem is she couldn't pay her husband's debt but Smirnov wants her to pay, because he needs the money. The problem seems like a door open Popov's new life. This play explores the ironies of life. It could happen today to life of anybody.

The story begins with a conversation between a young lady named Popov and her servant Luka about the death of her husband. She has been mourning, imprisoning herself since her husband's death and receiving no one. She wants to prove that she loves her husband even after seven months of his death although he was so unkind and faithless to her. A young man, named Smirnov, meets and asks her to pay back her husband's loan. Popov's husband had borrowed from him to buy oats for his horse, Toby.

Popov couldn’t pay him because she has no money in hand, and she asks him to contact her manager on the next day as she is not in the mood to discuss money matters. Smirnov insists that he needs the money then and there to pay the bank interest. Gradually, he behaves awkwardly and rudely and calls all women insincere, selfish, faithless, and trivial to the marrow of their backbone. Popov also calls him an ill-bred, vulgar person, a boor, a monster, etc. This leads both of them to a fight. Luka is afraid and goes to call gardener and other servants to stop them fighting. Popov brings pistol but she does not know how to fire. Smirnov teaches her.

The process of asking for debt and Popov's stylish attitude makes him fall in love with her. Popov also begins to like him. Smirnov is surprised that he has never met a woman like her. Suddenly he doesn’t want to fight. It is because he madly loves her like a student. Then the falling action happens with a surprised statement of Smirnov that he loves her. Instead of fighting, they are drawn close to each other. When Luka returns, he finds both of them in happy union.

Of Mice and Men -John Steinbeck

Steinbeck is an American author, most of whose works is set in central California. His works frequently explore the themes of fate and injustice, especially as applied to downtrodden or everyman protagonists. This novel (published in 1937) narrates the experiences of George Milton and Lennie Small, two displaced migrant ranch workers, who move from place to place in search of new job opportunities during the Great Depression in the United States. The title is taken from Robert Burns' poem 'To a Mouse'. Burn's poem tells of the regret the narrator feels for having destroyed the home of a mouse while plowing his field. 'Of Mice and Men' has been a frequent target of censors for vulgarity, for its offensive and racist language.

George is an intelligent but uneducated man whereas Lennie is bulky, strong but mentally disabled man. They are forced to flee armed men after Lennie tears a woman's dress while trying to feel its material. They jump on a train and arrive at Soledad, California, where they take jobs as ranch hands. As they walk, George sees Lennie carrying a dead mouse, he throws the mouse away, and Lennie cries so that George promises him a puppy if he stops crying.

George yells that Lennie has ruined his life by always getting into trouble. George recites an oft-told dream of him and Lennie buying their own ranch, with lots of rabbits for Lennie to feed. Commanding Lennie to look around and remember where they are, George instructs him to return to this spot and hide in the bushes if he gets in trouble. Curley is the son of The Boss. His young and attractive wife pretends to look for her husband, but it is only an excuse for her to check out the new ranch hands.

Candy offers $350 dollars out of the $600 to share the farm George and Lennie were buying. Lennie grabs Curley's hand and crushes it. The next night, George goes to town with the other men and leaves Lennie with the puppies. Later, George returns and finds Lennie talking to Crooks in the barn. Curley's wife finds Lennie crying over the corpse of a puppy. When Lennie states he likes stroking soft things, she suggests he touch her hair, but Lennie cannot control his strong hands. At this, Curley's wife screams, and with his attempt to silence her, Lennie accidentally breaks her neck. George steals a pistol and goes to the stream, where he finds Lennie, and then shoots him in the back of the head.

Steinbeck emphasizes dreams throughout this book. George aspires to become independent, to be his own boss, to have a homestead, and most important, to be 'somebody'. Lennie aspires to be with George on his independent homestead, and to quench his fixation on soft objects. Candy aspires to reassert his responsibility lost with the death of his dog, and for security for his old age on George's homestead. Crooks aspires to a small homestead where he can express self-respect, security, and most of all, acceptance. Curley's wife dreams to be an actress, to satisfy her desire for fame lost when she married Curley and an end to her loneliness.

Loneliness is a significant factor in several characters' lives. Candy is lonely after his dog is gone. Curley's wife is lonely because her husband is not the friend she hoped for, so that she deals with her loneliness by flirting with the men on the ranch, which causes Curley to increase his abusiveness and jealousy. The companionship of George and Lennie is the result of loneliness. Crooks states the theme candidly as- 'A guy goes nuts if he ain't got anybody. Don't make any difference who the guy is, long's he's with you.' The name 'Soledad' of the town itself means 'solitude' in Spanish. The Boss is suspicious of George and Lennie because they travel together, revealing that he prefers his workers to be isolated and alone.

Steinbeck's characters are often powerless, due to intellectual, economic, and social circumstances. Evil of oppression and abuse is a theme that is illustrated through Curley and Curley's wife. Curley is aggressive and preys on the weak. The reason Lennie and Curley's wife are together is because they have both been bullied by Curley, and ultimately, by the harsh way of life on the ranch. Fate is felt most heavily as the characters' aspirations are destroyed when George is unable to protect Lennie. When George is forced to kill Lennie before the search party can find him, it is not just Lennie who is destroyed, but also the unique friendship the two men have shared. This idealized friendship has been utterly defeated by the isolation, mistrust, and fear which is the reality of migrant working-class life.

Opt. English 11 Model Answers
Group A (11)
1. Victorian literature achieved its greatest success in the novel.
2. The Classical age tended to favor the taste and search for truth in art.
3. The smallest unit of words is called phoneme.
4. The word ‘communication’ has stress on fourth syllable.
5. In the story ‘The Cactus’ by O’Henry, Trysdale proposes to a woman. How does the woman respond? = She sends him a cactus with its name in Spanish.
6. What is the narrator telling us about in the story ‘Boys and Girls’? = Her life in a fox farm.
7. According to Bacon, the chief use of study is delight.
8. Shakespeare’s Sonnet 18 is addressed to a young man.
9. What does the ‘black ocean’ represent in the poem ‘Still I Rise’? = The speaker
10. What is not the theme of the play ‘The Boor’? = industrialization
11. The character Madana as depicted in the drama ‘Chitra’ is the god of love.
Group B (40)
12. Development of English language during Elizabethan period
Elizabethan language refers to the kind of English spoken by the people during the reign of Queen Elizabeth in England. It was considerably different from the English we speak today from a stylistic and structural perspective. The standardization of language with its recording began after the establishment of printing press by William Caxton in 1476. The major writers of this period were Ben Jonson, John Donne, Christopher Marlowe, William Shakespeare, Francis Bacon, etc. Renaissance brought trends of reading the ancient literature which resulted in the learning and use of the words from Greek and Latin in their writings.
Shakespeare started writing during a time when the English language was undergoing serious changes due to contact with other nations through war, colonization, and the likes. These changes were further cemented through Shakespeare and other emerging playwrights who found their ideas could not be expressed through the English language currently in circulation. Thus, the “adoption” of words or phrases from other languages were modified and added to the English language, creating a richer experience for all concerned.
13. Modern age versus postmodern age in English literature
“Modern” is the term that describes the period from the 1890s to 1945, and “post-modern” refers to the period after the Second World War, mainly after 1968. Modern is related to logical and rational thinking whereas post-modern has denied this logical thinking. While the modern approach was theoretical, objective and analytical, the post-modern approach was subjective.
The modernist was in search of an abstract truth of life whereas the post-modernist did not believe in abstract truth or in universal truth. In modernism, there was an attempt to develop a coherent worldview. But in post-modernism, there is an attempt to remove the differences between the high and the low.
A modern thinker believes in learning from the experiences of the past and also has much trust in the text that tells about the past. On the contrary, a post-modern thinker does not have such beliefs. The post-modernist thinks that the text that tells about the past is of no use in the present times. When a modern thinker analyses a subject by going deep into it, the post-modern thinker does not believe in in-depth analysis. A post-modern thinker bases his views on hyper-reality whereas the modern thinker only considered original works as genuine. A post-modern thinker considers morality as relative.
When considering the arts, modern and post-modern art have many differences. While modern art is based on elegance and simplicity, post-modern art is considered elaborate and decorative. When modern philosophy is based on effect and cause, post-modern philosophy is based on chance only. When modern thinkers consider truth as objective, the post-modern thinkers consider truth as relative and socially based. It can also be seen that post-modernists involve politics in everything whereas modernists are not that political.
14. Language versus animal communication
Human language differs from animal communication in many ways. While humans use language to produce an infinite number of unique sentences as a form of communication, animals lack this ability. Animals communicate by signal codes, which means, they have a limited number of statements, generally as simple responses to certain situations. Human language, on the other hand, is a true language – a system of arbitrary signs which allows us to convey unlimited interactions.
For one, human language differs because it has form and meaning, which means a structure which combines sounds, gestures, letters, and written words which when put together have a certain significance or meaning. Secondly, human language differs because it is creative, meaning that we can (with language) produce (and understand) an infinite number of new sentences which have never before been spoken; we can lie and joke and even talk about things that don’t make any sense. Thirdly, human language differs because it has displacement, which basically means that we as humans can talk about things in the past and future, and things that are either right in front of us or miles away. While some animals, like bees, have shown signs of limited displacement, and while certain apes have been able to acquire a number of sign language messages, animal communication is restricted to very simple messages like “look out” or “danger!” Animals cannot say “look out, I saw a snake in that tree yesterday” or make jokes, lie, and talk about the imaginary (which linguists refer to as the ability to use tropes).
15. Types of phrases in English
A phrase is a group or combination of two or more words.
1] Noun Phrases
These are the phrases contains a noun- name, place or things and at least one modifier associated to the noun. For example, 'a black linen shirt' in 'He was wearing a black linen shirt.'
2] Verb Phrases
These phrases consist of the main verb/verbs and then auxiliary verbs. For example, 'is writing' in the sentence 'The teacher is writing the answer.'
3] Prepositional Phrase
Any phrase that consists of a preposition, and the object of the preposition, is called a prepositional phrase. For example, 'on time' in 'Students are advised to be on time.'
4] Infinitive Phrases
A phrase that includes an infinitive along with a simple verb is an infinitive phrase. For example, 'Alex likes to read comics' has infinitive phrase 'to read'.
5] Participle Phrases
A participle phrase will begin with a participle, which can be a present participle or a past participle. For example, 'telling' in 'We got a call from my aunt today telling us the good news'.
6] Gerund Phrases
A gerund phrase is also a phrase that contains an ‘ing' word, but while participle phrases function as adjectives, Gerund Phrases exclusively function as nouns. For example, 'writing' in 'Writing memoir is her passion.'
7] Absolute Phrase
An absolute phrase will contain a noun or a pronoun with a participle. Generally, an absolute phrase is separated by commas. For example, 'He looked towards the beggar, his face expressing pity'.
16. Questions asked by the king and the moral from ‘Three Questions’
In the short story “Three Questions” by Leo Tolstoy, a king wants to know the answer of the three questions so as to get enlightenment. The three questions were: what was the right time for every action, who were the right people to be with and what was the most important thing to do. He proclaimed that he would give a great reward to the person who can answer his three questions.
After not finding correct answer, the king decided to consult a wise hermit. He saw the hermit digging the ground and out of compassion, he did it for the hermit. He kept on asking the three questions but the hermit kept silent until hours passed and it was already sunset. The hermit saw a bearded man running and his hands on his stomach. He was wounded and dying; the hermit told the king about it and they helped the bearded man.
The next day, the king woke up and the bearded man saw him and apologized to him. He admitted that he was an enemy of the king. The bearded man said that he heard about the king going to the hermit so he tried to kill him when he was in his way back home but he failed.
The king asked the hermit once again for his answers to which the hermit said that the most important time is our present because it is the only moment when we have the power to act. The most important person at a moment is we ourselves because the future is unpredictable and the most important business is to be kind and good to others because we have been sent in this world to serve this noble cause.
So this way the hermit tells the king that all the answers are within himself. The king learnt to do good to others without thinking about own-self.
17. Effects of the Silk Road in towns and cities along trade routes
The silk road is a name coined by German geographer F. Von Richtofen in 1877, but it refers to a trade network used in antiquity. It was through the Silk Road that imperial Chinese silk reached luxury-seeking Romans, who also added flavor to their food with spices from the East. Trade went two ways. Indo-Europeans may have brought written language and horse-chariots to China.
Most of the study of Ancient History is divided into the discrete stories of city-states, but with the Silk Road, we have a major over-arching bridge. Road has also been called the Steppe Road because much of the path from the Mediterranean to China was through endless miles of Steppe and desert, in other words, Central Asia. This was the area that produced the indomitable horseback tribes whose names struck terror in the settled areas of the ancient world.
Not only did the silk road bring traders in contact with other parts of the continental landmass, but nomadic pastoralists from northern Eurasia (like the Huns) migrated south into the Roman Empire, while other Central Asian tribes expanded into the Persian and Chinese empires.
18. Description of ‘Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimmed'
Shakespeare opens the poem addressing his young beloved with a rhetorical question comparing her to the most favorable season to highlight her lovely and temperate nature. Of course, the summer is fleeting: its date is too short, and it leads to the withering of autumn. On the surface, the poem is simply a statement of praise about the beauty of the beloved; summer tends to unpleasant extremes of windiness and heat, but the beloved is always mild. Summer is incidentally personified as the 'eye of heaven' with its 'gold complexion'.
During the summer, sometimes the heat of the sun is far too high, while it has gold color as of the burning flame of fire. Such an extreme hot temperature causes disappointment. It shows the imperfectness of the sun as well. The summer should not be judged only on the basis of such moment as it is for a short time. Rest of the times, there are passing clouds decreasing the intolerable heat. The nature maintains the fairness with contrasts. We should not worry about the harsh weather as it changes shortly. Summer is not only the season of the shining sun but also the cool breeze and drizzle and blossoms!
19. Justification of the title ‘The Song of Death’
This realistic play by Tawfiq al-Hakim opens with Asakir and Mabruka anxiously awaiting Ilwan’s return to the village. Asakir has been waiting for seventeen years for her late husband’s death to be avenged; she expects Ilwan to fulfill his familial duties and stab Suweilam Tahawi, the man who killed his father. Through conversation with Mabruka, Asakir reveals that her son has been studying at the university in Cairo. Asakir is proud of him, but she does not realize how much her son’s education and experiences have changed him. Ilwan questions his mother’s plan for him to commit murder; he asks why she didn’t ask the authorities to prosecute the killer. He tells his mother that he has returned to his village in hopes of educating the villagers to stand up for their rights and improve their standard of living. After Ilwan leaves to return to the train station, Asakir disowns him, and she exhorts Simeida to kill his cousin with the same knife she hoped Ilwan would use. Simeida questions Asakir’s command, but his aunt warns him that if he should not kill his cousin, the whole village will laugh at him and the Aziz family. In the ensuing dialogue between Asakir and Mabruka, we learn that Asakir hopes that her son will escape on the train. Simeida’s song confirms the contrary, and the play closes with Asakir’s grief.
Group C (24)
20. Theme of dreams in Of Mice and Men
John Steinbeck wrote the novella 'Of Mice and Men' in 1930s, narrating the experiences of George Milton and Lennie Small, two displaced migrant ranch workers. Steinbeck based the novella on his own experiences working alongside migrant farm workers as a teenager in the 1910s. The title is taken from Robern Burns' poem 'To a Mouse', which reads - the best laid schemes of mice and men often go awry. The novelist emphasizes dreams throughout the book.
George aspires to become independent, to be his own boss, to have a homestead, and, most important, to be 'somebody'. Lennie aspires to be with George on his independent homestead, and to quench his fixation on soft objects. Candy aspires to reassert his responsibility lost with the death of his dog, and for security for his old age- on George's homestead. Crooks aspires to a small homestead where he can express self-respect, security, and most of all, acceptance. Curley's wife dreams to be an actress, to satisfy her desire for fame lost when she married Curley, and and end to her loneliness.
George and Lennie share a dream: to own their own land, allowing them to live "off the fatta the lan'." This dream comes up repeatedly throughout the novella in conversations between George and Lennie as well as with other farm workers. However, the significance of this dream differs depending on which character is discussing it.
To innocent Lennie, the dream is a concrete plan. He truly believes that he and George will someday have their own farm with plenty of alfalfa and rabbits. Whenever Lennie feels scared or worried, he asks George to tell him about the farm and the rabbits. Hearing George describe the imaginary farm comforts and reassures Lennie.
The farm plan is supposed to be a secret, but Lennie accidentally lets it slip during a conversation with Crooks. Crooks rejects the dream immediately. He tells Lennie that people are always making big statements about getting land or going to heaven, but that "[n]obody never gets to heaven, and nobody gets no land. It’s just in their head.” For Crooks, there is no point in dreaming—dreams don't offer solace because he is certain that they won't come true.
George has yet another relationship to the dream. For most of the novella, it is unclear whether he truly believes that the farm dream will become a reality, or whether he simply talks about it to keep Lennie happy and to pass the time. At the story's end, however, it becomes clear that for George, the dream was never a potential reality. Up until the instant he shoots Lennie, George is telling him about the farm they'll have one day. In this moment, George knows that Lennie will never see the farm, but still uses the dream to keep Lennie calm; Lennie, on the other hand, truly believes that he will one day be tending rabbits on the farm that George describes. This moment perfectly symbolizes the conflict between George's skepticism of the dream and Lennie's innocent hopes about the dream, as well as the violent power of the former over the latter.
21. ‘Her inability to deal with ideas helps her to become a writer.’ How is writing a way of finding out more about our surroundings and lives? - Why I Write
This is an argumentative essay in which the title is borrowed from George Orwell. In her entire essay, the essayist tries to build up a rationale for why someone has to write. She wants us to understand how writing works for her. Her way of saying that she “is not a thinker” just means that writing is in fact for everyone. A person does not have to be “good” or “bad” at writing. Everyone has their own way of ideas, words and emotions which makes every piece of writing unique.
Her way of writing is by her own imagination. When she starts to write she goes off by the pictures in her mind and goes from there. We can assume that she is a visual learner. I now know that a person has to find their own way to write their words. Writers just have to put their effort into the piece of writing and go all into it. The overall purpose for this essay is just to show readers that each and every one us have our own kind of way to start writing. Not everybody has to be intelligent in order to be a writer. She just wants us to be passionate about our ideas, thoughts and words.
Didion's self-perceived inability to deal with ideas is the very thing that makes her a great writer. She probably sees things in so many different ways and from so many different perspectives, and when she writes, she is forced to combine all of those thoughts into one. Writers tend to be abstract, which Didion definitely is. Sometimes abstract thoughts have a way of clouding the mind full of ideas, and throught writing Didion is able to let her ideas flow out onto a page and touch the rest of us.
Sometimes when imagination can't form together an idea too easily, writing helps give it a shape because a writer's tendencies or voice becomes organized and 'solid' once it's on paper. Instead of ideas that can't be grasped, thoughts become words to be rearranged to fit the writer's will. Also, the voice, personality, and writing tendencies of a writer influence what they write. A person could find out who they are if they see what they write once they let themselves out on paper.
22. Critical examination of ‘United Fruit Co.’
United Fruit Co. is the real name of an American imperial company for banana trade in the Middle American countries. Linking with Biblical myth, the poet Pablo Neruda shows the superiority complex of the American company and their domination and discrimination in various economic activities to the people in their colonies.
Neruda seems to be familiar with the avant-garde and some have even pointed to Surrealism of T.S. Eliot and of other poets in his work. Nonetheless, whatever else might have played a hand, Neruda offered a strong opinion and commented and contrasted in inimitable ways. He refused to be pigeonholed intellectually but just allowed himself to put pen to paper naturally. Insomuch, La United Fruit Co. is Neruda through the power of the pen, taking on a large multinational cooperation, taking them to task on the treatment of their host countries. La United Fruit Co. is a descriptive narrative of the impact of a multinational cooperation on Central America. It goes into depth on how the United Fruit Company had been blessed with something but has used it to curse the people. It can be seen as providing social commentary on an ongoing situation at that time. However, the poem may also have proved to serve as a warning to Neruda’s Chilean government. It must have told them to be weary of the promise of hope from multinational cooperations. Even in the wider scope, it must have also warned his South American peers of what has happen to Central America. As aforementioned Neruda never saw himself being loyal to a specific school of poetry, his work spanned many schools and periods of poetry. La United Fruit Co. was published in the book Canto General which Neruda completed while exile. Persuaded by political occurrences such as his leftist affiliations, he attempts to break out of the elitism of Spanish poetry and create a contemporary political commentary. For this reason, it is seen as a post modernistic work.

Links for resources:

Links for resources:

Listening Class 11

Important topics for writing practice of class 11

1. Impacts of science and technology on human life

2. Has internet aided to broadening or narrowing the critical thinking capacity of youths?

3. Dos and Don'ts for the visitors of a zoo/national-park/museum/library

4. Importance of Tourism in Nepal

5. Travelling a place is equal to reading three books.

6. A travelogue of your recent visit to a natural/religious place

7. Review of a book/film

8. Identity crisis in immigrants

9. Role of NRNA in Nation Building

10. Impact of globalization into the climate change in Nepal

11. News story about a local festival/fair

12. Effects of globalization on cultures/education

13. Existence of God

14. Religion influences ethics and morality

15. Soul really exists

16. To change your body, you first have to change your mind

17. War and Peace

18. Responsive youths for peace and prosperity

19. All war is a symptom of man's failure as a thinking animal

20. Power and Politics

21. National hero who fought bravely in the Anglo-Nepal War

22. Qualities of a Great Leader

23. Biography of an entrepreneur or a national literary, artistic or historical figure

24. Press release statement for a special event

25. Narrating a folktale or a strange dream

26. Profile of a great artist of Nepal

27. Machiavelli's view about a good leader

28. Art and literature are important assets of a country

29. Literature is the reflection of society

30. Today's reader is tomorrow's leader

31. Diary describing feelings on missing somebody

32. A mother's love is everlasting and indispensable

33. Expectations of the parents from their offspring

34. Speech on racial/caste related discrimination in our country

35. Societies have struggled with segregation in the world

36. Superstitions in our community

37. Community forest in Nepal

38. Can a person make a difference in a society?

39. Yoga can be good to stay physically and mentally healthy.

40. Healthy citizens are the greatest assets of a country.

41. Do dreams have meaning in real life?

42. Political movements in Nepal

43. Email to a friend stating contribution of national dignitaries

44. Pros and cons of feudalism

45. The Great Wall and the Taj Mahal are the creation of the autocratic rulers.

46. Instructions to open Facebook/Twitter/Gmail account, or to book online air ticket

47. My favorite mass media

48. Cyber bullying

49. Impacts of social media in the society

50. Hobbies

51. Preparing notes for study and examination

52. My school library

53. Moral values I like most

54. Challenges to writing

55. Education empowers a person

56. My school days

Optional English 11


Triple-A Lesson Plan Model

Class:                    Subject:

Unit:                      Title:

Length of lesson:        

Specific learning outcome/competencies (from curriculum):

Behavioral objectives:

Materials Required:

Activities and Assessment


Class: 5            Date: 2019 Mar 6

Subject: English

Time: 10:15-11:00

Unit: 6 (Describing Time)               No. of Students: 30

Lesson Topic: Reading the story "Little Red Riding Hood"

Specific Objectives: Students will find meaning of new words and interpret the events and characters


Lesson Name:

Class (Brief description of class and students):

Overall duration of the lesson:

Brief Description of the lesson:

Materials needed:


Lesson Procedure:

 Student products (if any):


Supplementary and Follow-up Activities:

Lesson Plan No.  ...

Class:  1                           Date:

Subject: English                     Time: 11:00 to 11:45

Unit: 7 (Hot and Cold)         

No. of students: 20

Teaching Item: Reading and Responding

Specific Objectives: On completion of this lesson, the students will be able to-

1. Read the text with correct pronunciation, speed and intonation

2. Tell and write the antonyms for the given words

Teaching materials: Picture cards (for tall, short, fat, thin, hot, cold, happy, sad, dirty and clean)

                                    4 sets of Board games prepared in chart paper and dice

Teaching/Learning Activities:

Warm Up or motivation: Show the pictures and ask the Ss to tell about them. Also encourage them to match the opposite pairs. E.g. tall- short, fat- thin


  1. Standing in front of the class, read the text with correct pronunciation, speed and intonation and ask the Ss to listen and follow with shadow reading
  2. Assign a turn to some individuals to read aloud and provide necessary feedback.
  3. Discuss about the antonyms of the words in the given text.

Practice: Provide general instruction to play the board game, divide the class into 4 groups and distribute the board games. Go around the class and see how well the Ss read and respond to the prompts given in the board.

Assessment: Place all the picture cards with face down on the table. Give the instruction and distribute the picture cards randomly to each S. The Ss will write down one adjective for the picture and also a suitable antonym for that adjective. They will be evaluated as per their performance during the overall classroom activities and writing task.

Home assignment: Write 10 adjectives to describe your home.


Some Riddles for teachers

1.      What is the longest word in the English language?

2.      Why is the letter E so important?

3.      When can you have something and nothing at the same time in your pocket?

4.      Where can you always find money?

5.      Why do fish live in water?

6.      What is black when it is clean and white when it is dirty?

7.      What word is pronounced wrong, even by the best of scholars?

8.      Who will be your real friend, a poor friend or a rich one?

9.      What weather do mice and rats fear?

10.  Which can move faster, heat of cold?

11.  What has three hands but only one face?

12.  What two words contain thousands of letters?

13.  What can't be used unless broken?

14.  What stays hot even if put in a refrigerator?

15.  What kind of running means walking?

16.  Why are dogs afraid to sunbathe?

17.  What is the poorest bank in the world?

18.  Who is closer to you, your mom or your dad?

19.  What starts with E, ends with E and only has one letter?

20. What starts with a T, ends with a T and contains T?

21. What man cannot live inside a house?

22. What part of London is in Brazil?

23. What can you hold in your left hand, but not in your right hand?

Class 11 Social Studies and Soft Skills Education:
Memory Checking Questions
१. शाव्दिक अर्थमा सामाजिक अध्ययन भनेको के हो ?
मानव समाजसँग सम्बन्धित विभिन्न पक्षहरुका बारेमा खोज, अध्ययन र अनुसन्धान गर्नु ।
२. व्यापक अर्थमा सामाजिक अध्ययन भनेको के हो ?
मानव र उसको भौतिक, सामाजिक, राजनीतिक, साँस्कृतिक तथा आर्थिक वातावरणसँगको अन्तरक्रियाका सम्बन्धमा अध्ययन गर्नु ।
३. सामाजिक अध्ययनको मुख्य उद्देश्य के हो ?
आफ्नो देशका बालबालिकाहरुलाई असल, सक्षम, सिर्जनशील र देशप्रेमी नागरिकका रुपमा तयार पार्नु ।
४. सामाजिक अध्ययन किन महत्वपूर्ण छ ?
प्रजातान्त्रिक मूल्य र मान्यता तथा सकारात्मक सोच भएका चरित्रवान्, मिहिनेती, इमानदार र उत्तरदायी जनशक्ति उत्पादनमा सघाउने हुनाले ।
५. कस्ता सिपहरु जीवनोपयोगी सिपहरु हुन् ?
जीवनलाई सरल, सहज र सफल बनाउन सहयोग गर्ने सिपहरु ।
६. परम्परागत शिक्षण सिकाइ कस्तो हुन्छ ?
पाठ कण्ठस्थ गर्ने, व्याख्यान सुन्ने, टिपोट पढ्ने र परीक्षा उत्तीर्ण गर्ने ।
७. सामाजिक विज्ञान अध्ययनको कस्तो विधा हो ?
मानव समाज र मानव सम्बन्धहरुको वैज्ञानिक एवम् व्यवस्थित रुपमा अध्ययन गर्ने विधा ।
८. विषयवस्तुका आधारमा सामाजिक अध्ययन र सामाजिक विज्ञान बीच के भिन्नता छ ?
सामाजिक अध्ययन सामाजिक विज्ञानमा आस्रित एकिकृत विषय हो ।
९. ज्ञानको आधारमा सामाजिक अध्ययन र सामाजिक विज्ञान बीच के भिन्नता छ ?
सामाजिक अध्ययन ज्ञानको उपयोगसँग सम्बन्धित हुन्छ तर सामाजिक विज्ञान ज्ञानको उत्पादनसँग ।
१०. सामाजिक अध्ययन र सामाजिक विज्ञान मध्ये कुन चाहीँ बढी व्यावहारिक हुन्छ ?
सामाजिक अध्ययन
११. सामाजिक अध्ययन र सामाजिक विज्ञान मध्ये कुन चाहीँ मानव जीवनको एकै पक्षसँग मात्र सम्बन्धित हुन्छ ?
सामाजिक विज्ञान
१२. विषयवस्तु अध्ययनका आधारमा सामाजिक अध्ययन र सामाजिक विज्ञान बीच के भिन्नता छ ?
सामाजिक अध्ययनमा विषयवस्तुको सामान्य अध्ययन गरिन्छ जब की सामाजिक विज्ञानमा विषयवस्तुको गहिरो अध्ययन गरिन्छ ।
१३. उद्देश्यका आधारमा सामाजिक अध्ययन र सामाजिक विज्ञान बीच के भिन्नता छ ?
सामाजिक अध्ययनको उद्देश्य अपेक्षित नागरिक तयार पार्नु हो भने सामाजिक विज्ञानको उद्देश्य विषयविज्ञ तयार पार्नु हो ।
१४. अध्ययनको तहका आधारमा सामाजिक अध्ययन र सामाजिक विज्ञान बीच के भिन्नता छ ?
पहिलो विद्यालय तहसम्म अध्ययन गरिन्छ भने दोश्रो चाहीँ उच्च शिक्षासम्म ।
१५. कस्तो सिपलाई नरम, व्यापक वा एक्काइसौं शताव्दीको सिप,पनि भनिन्छ ?
१६. सामाजिक अध्ययन र सामाजिक शिक्षाको क्षेत्रमा के भिन्नता छ ?
सीमित र असीमित
१७. सामाजिक अध्ययन र सामाजिक शिक्षाको सिकाइमा के भिन्नता छ ?
पहिलोको सिकाइ निश्चित पाठ्यक्रममा आधारित हुन्छ तर दोश्रोको सिकाइ भने खुल्ला प्रकृतिको हुन्छ ।
१८. सामाजिक अध्ययन र सामाजिक शिक्षाको सिकाइ सहजीकरणमा के भिन्नता छ ?
पहिलो सिकारु र शिक्षक बीच अन्तरक्रिया र सहकार्यमा आधारित हुन्छ भने दोश्रो व्यक्ति, स्थान, परिवेश र समयमा ।
१९. सामाजिक अध्ययन र सामाजिक शिक्षाको सिकारुमा के भिन्नता छ ?
पहिलो विद्यालय तहका विद्यार्थीका लागि लक्षित हुन्छ तर दोश्रो जोसुकैका लागि ।
२०. सामाजिक अध्ययन र सामाजिक शिक्षा मध्ये कुन चाहीँ सामाजिकीकरणको प्रक्रिया हो ?
सामाजिक शिक्षा
२१. सामाजिक अध्ययन र सामाजिक शिक्षा मध्ये कुन चाहीँ दर्शनमा आधारित हुन्छ ?
सामाजिक शिक्षा
२२. नेपालमा पहिलो पटक जनगणनाको तथ्याङ्क प्रशोधनका लागि आइएमबि १४०१ मेनफ्रेम कम्प्युटरको प्रवेश भएको बर्ष कुन हो ?
सन् १९७२ वा वि.सं. २०२८
२३. डिजिटल साक्षरता भनेको के हो ?
सूचना तथा सञ्चार प्रविधि प्रयोग गरी कुनै पनि सूचना प्राप्त गर्ने, मूल्याङ्कन गर्ने, सिर्जना गर्ने र सञ्चार गर्ने क्षमता ।
२४. डिजिटल सामग्रीको उपयोग, सिर्जना र वितरणलाई डिजिटल साक्षरता भनेर उल्लेख गर्ने व्यक्तिको नाम के हो ?
प्रो. हिलर स्पाइर्स
२५. निर्देशन अनुसार कम्प्युटरले तथ्याङ्कलाई गर्ने कामहरु के हुन् ?
गणना, प्रशोधन र भण्डारण
२६. कम्प्युटर प्रणाली भनेको के हो ?
हार्डवेयर र सप्mटवेयरको संयुक्त रुप ।
२७. कम्प्युटरको सप्mटवेयर भनेको के हो ?
हार्डवेयरलाई सञ्चालन गर्न कम्प्युटरले बुझ्ने भाषामा तयार गरिएको निर्देशनहरुको प्याकेज ।
२८. कम्प्युटरका प्रमुख चारवटा हार्डवेयर उपकरणहरु के के हुन् ?
सिपियु, मोनिटर, किबोर्ड र माउस
२९. हार्डवेयरका मुख्य चार भाग वा उपकरणहरु के के हुन् ?
इन्पुट, प्रशोधन, आउटपुट र भण्डारण
३०. एकपटक सेभ गरिएको फाइलमा केही काम गरेपछि पुन: सेभ गर्न कुन दुईवटा किहरु सँगै थिच्नुपर्छ ?
कन्ट्रोल र एस
३१. इन्टरनेट र कम्प्युटरका बीचमा सञ्चार सम्बन्ध स्थापना गर्ने सप्mटवेयरलाई के भनिन्छ ?
वेब ब्राउजर
३२. साइवर नैतिकता भनेको के हो ?
इन्टरनेट वा सामाजिक सञ्जालमा गरिने असल व्यवहार ।
३३. साइबर अपराध भनेको के हो ?
कुनै कम्प्युटर प्रयोग वा कम्प्युटरलाई लक्षित गरेर गरिने कुनै पनि प्रकारका गैरकानुनी, अनैतिक वा असामाजिक कार्य ।
३४. कम्प्युटर, इन्टरनेटलगायतका विद्युतीय सञ्चार माध्यमहरुमा गैरकानुनी सामग्रीहरु प्रकाशन गरेमा कस्तो सजाय हुन्छ ?
एक लाख रुपैयाँसम्म जरिवाना वा पाँच बर्षसम्म कैद वा दुवै सजाय ।
३५. निर्णय भनेको के हो ?
कुनै काम गर्नुपूर्व त्यो काम गर्ने वा नगर्ने भनी विचारपूर्वक गरिएको निष्कर्ष ।
३६. निर्णय निर्माण भनेको के हो ?
एउटा निश्चित प्रक्रिया पूरा गरी निर्णय गर्ने वा उत्तम विकल्प छनौटको तरिका ।
३७. सङ्गठनात्मक निर्णय भनेको के हो ?
कुनै सङ्घसंस्थाका पदाधिकार िवा कर्मचारबिाट संस्थाको उद्देश्य अनुरुप गरिने कामका सम्बन्धमा लिइने निर्णय ।
३८. व्यक्तिगत निर्णय भनेको के हो ?
व्यक्तिले आफ्नो दैनिक जीवनयापनका सिलसिलामा आफ्नो इच्छानुसार स्वयम् नै गर्ने निर्णय ।
३९. सामूहिक निर्णय भनेको के हो ?
आपसी हित वा भलाइका लागि एकभन्दा बढी सम्बन्धित व्यक्तिहरु एकआपसमा मिली गरिने निर्णय ।
४०. विवेकशील निर्णय भनेको के हो ?
विभिन्न विकल्पहरुको पहिचान गरी तथ्य र प्रमाणहरुको विश्लेषण पछि सवोत्तम विकल्पको छनौट गरी गरिने निर्णय ।
४१. बढोत्तरी निर्णय भनेको के हो ?
पूर्व निर्णयलाई नै आधार मानेर जारी कामहरुलाई थप परिमार्जन वा सुधार गर्ने गरी लिइने पुरक निर्णय ।
४२. समस्या भनेको के हो ?
बुझाइ वा विचार ग्रहणमा कठिनाइ परेको अवस्था ।
४३. समस्याको पहिचान कसरी गरिन्छ ?
समस्या के हो, कसरी सिर्जना भयो र किन भयो भन्ने प्रश्नको उत्तर वा समस्याको मूल कारणको खोजी गरेर ।
४४. सञ्चार भनेको के हो ?
दुई पक्षहरु बीच सूचना आदानप्रदान गर्ने र अर्थ बुझ्ने प्रक्रिया ।
४५. सञ्चार प्रक्रियाका मनोवैज्ञानिक अवरोधहरु के के हुन् ?
सूचना छनौटको प्रवृत्ति, सूचनाको बोझ, आवेग, लैङ्गिक शैलि आदि ।
४६. तनाव व्यवस्थापनको दीर्घकालीन रणनीति कुन हो ?
४७. अन्तरवैयक्तिक सिप भनेको के हो ?
आफूले नजानेको कुरा अरुसँग सोधेर सिक्ने र आफ्ना विचार राखेर अरुसँग सञ्चार गर्ने जनसिप ।
४८. टोलिकार्य भनेको के हो ?
संवाद, योजना बैठक र सहकार्य गरी समूहमा काम गर्ने दक्षता र गुणस्तर ।
४९. पहिलो होमिनिड भनेर कुनचाहीँ नरवानरहरुलाई मानिएको छ ?
५०. मानवको जैविकीय उद्विकास भनेको के हो ?
नरवानरजस्तै पुर्खाबाट उद्विकास भई क्रमिक रुपमा अहिलेको मानवका रुपमा विकसित भएको प्रक्रिया ।
५१. होमो जातिको उद्विकास कुन मानव पुर्खाबाट भएको मानिन्छ ?
५२. होमो जातिको पहिलो प्रजाति कुन हो ?
होमो ह्याबिलिस
५३. अफ्रिका महादेशबाट अरु महादेशमा फैलिएको पहिलो मानव जाति कुन हो ?
होमो इरेक्टस
५४. नियन्डरथल मानवको नामाकरण कसरी गरिएको हो ?
जर्मनीको डसेलडर्फ नजिकैको नियन्डर उपत्यकाको नामका आधारमा ।
५५. होमो नियन्डरथलेन्सिसहरुले ढुङ्गाबाट विभिन्न खालका हतियार बनाउने संस्कृतिलाई के भनिन्छ ?
मस्तेरियन र लेभाइलोइसिइन
५६. आगोको प्रयोग गर्ने प्रथम मानव पुर्खा कुन हो ?
होमो इरेक्टस
५७. हालसम्मको मानव हामो जातिको कुन प्रजाति हो ?
होमो सेपियन्स
५८. कार्ल माक्र्सका अनुसार समाज विकासका चरणहरु के हुन् ?
आदिम साम्यवाद, दासप्रथा, सामन्तवादी समाज र पूँजीवादी समाज ।
५९. ई.बी. टाइलर र ए.एल.मोर्गानका अनुसार समाज विकासका चरणहरु के हुन् ?
प्रारम्भिक ढुङ्गे युग, मध्यकालीन बर्बर युग र आधुनिक सभ्य युग ।
६०. निम्न पुरापाषाण कालखण्डको मुख्य मानव प्रजाति कुन थियो ?
होमो इरेक्टस ।
६१. निम्न पुरापाषाण संस्कृतिको प्रमुख औजार के मानिन्छ ?
हाते बन्चरो ।
६२. मानव समाज विकासको क्रममा कुन युगमा विभिन्न ज्यामितीय आकारका औजारहरु बनाइएको थियो ?
मध्य पाषाण युग
६३. मानव समाज विकासको क्रममा कुन युगमा पशुपालन र कृषि तर्फ पहिलोपटक प्रयास भएको मानिन्छ ?
मध्य पाषाण युग
६४. मानव समाज विकासको क्रममा कुन युगलाई सांस्कृतिक परिवर्तनका आधारमा क्रान्तिकारी युग समेत भन्ने गरिन्छ ?
नव पाषाण युग
६५. मानव समाज विकासको क्रममा कुन युगमा धातुको आविष्कार भएको मानिन्छ ?
नव पाषाण युग
६६. कृषि कार्यको सबैभन्दा पुरानो प्रमाण कुन ठाउँमा भेटिएको थियो ?
मेसोपोटामियाका नदी उपत्यकादेखि जोर्डनसम्म फैलिएको उर्वर अर्धचन्द्राकार क्षेत्र ।
६७. पूँजीवादी समाजको मुख्य विशेषता के हो ?
उत्पादनका साधनहरुमा निजी स्वामित्व, निजी सम्पत्तिको महत्व र स्वतन्त्र बजार ।
६८. औद्योगिक समाजको परिचय दिनुहोस् ।
युरोपेली औद्योगिक क्रान्तिपश्चात् गुजारामुखी उत्पादन प्रणालीलाई ठुलो परिमाणमा वस्तुको उत्पादनद्धारा प्रतिस्थापन गरेको समाज ।
६९. सहरीकरण भनेको के हो ?
सहर र सहरी जनसङ्ख्यामा वृद्धि सँगै सर्वसाधारणको दैनिक जनजीवनमा आउने परिवर्तन ।
७०. विश्वव्यापिकरण भनेको के हो ?
आधुनिक सुविधाहरुको विकासले विश्वभरमा छिटो र सजिलो रुपमा परस्पर सम्बन्ध स्थापित हुनसक्ने अवस्था ।
७१. व्यक्तिवादी प्रवृत्तिमा बढोत्तरी हुनुको मुख्य कारण के हो ?
बढ्दो आधुनिकता वा प्रविधिको विस्तार
७२. बहुसांस्कृतिकता भनेको के हो ?
फरकफरक सामाजिक र सांस्कृतिक विशेषता भएका मानिसहरु बीचको बढ्दो अन्तरघुलन ।
७३. सामाजिक व्यवहार किन स्थापित भएको हुन्छ ?
मानवका आधारभूत सामाजिक आवश्यकताहरुको परिपूर्ति ।
७४. परसंस्कृति ग्रहण भनेको कस्तो प्रक्रिया हो ?
दुई भिन्न समूहहरुका बीच सम्पर्क र सहकार्यका कारण उनीहरुको मौलिक सामाजिक र सांस्कृतिक ढाँचामा आउने परिवर्तन ।
७५. सामाजिक प्रक्रियाहरु मध्ये आत्मसात् भनेको के हो ?
एक समूहले आफ्ना सामाजिक र सांस्कृतिक विशेषताहरु पूर्णरुपमा छाडेर अर्को समूहका विशेषताहरु अपनाउँदै जानु ।
७६. द्वन्द्व भनेको कस्तो सामाजिक व्यवहार हो ?
प्रतिस्पर्धीहरुलाई निषेध गरेर आफू र आफ्नो समूहका आवश्यकताहरु पूर्तिको प्रयास गर्ने सामाजिक व्यवहार ।
७७. अनुकूलन भनेको कस्तो सामाजिक प्रक्रिया हो ?
मानिस वा समूहले आफ्ना सामाजिक तथा अन्य आवश्यकताहरु पूर्ति गर्नका लागि सामाजिक वातावरणसँग आफूलाई समायोजित गर्नु ।
७८. मानवशास्त्रीहरुका विचारमा संस्कृति भनेको के हो ?
समाजका सदस्यहरु बीच रहेको साझा सामाजिक व्यवहारहरुको समग्र स्वरुप ।
७९. विश्वको तेश्रो सवोच्च चुचुरोको नाम के हो ?
८०. इन्युट र एस्किमो जातका मानिसहरु कहाँ बसोबास गर्छन् ?
ध्रुवीय क्षेत्रमा
८१. नेपालको अक्षांश र देशान्तर लेख्नुहोस् ।
२६ डिग्री २२ मिनेटदेखि ३० डिग्री २७ मिनेट उत्तरी अक्षांश र ८० डिग्री ४ मिनेटदेखि ८८ डिग्री १२ मिनेट पूर्वी देशान्तर ।
८२. नेपालको सबभन्दा होचो स्थान कुन हो ?
धनुषाको मुखियापट्टी मुसहरनिया (५९ मि) ।
८३. वातावरण भनेको के हो ?
पृथ्वीमा उपलब्ध प्राकृतिक र सांस्कृतिक तत्वहरुको समग्र अवस्था ।
८४. दीगो विकास लक्ष्यको परिचय दिनुहोस् ।
सन् २०१६ देखि २०३० सम्मका लागि १७ वटा लक्ष्य सहित कार्यान्वयनमा रहेको संयुक्त राष्ट्रसङ्घीय विकास कार्यक्रम ।
८५. दक्षिण अमेरिकाको अमेजन बेँसीमा कस्तो प्रकारका जङ्गल रहेका छन् ?
अग्ला, मोटा, टुप्पामा झ्याम्म परेका, सुरिला रुख भएका घना सदावहार ।
८६. मरुभूमि क्षेत्रमा पानी उपलब्ध भएको ठाउँलाई के भनिन्छ ?
८७. विश्वका कुनै चार प्रमुख घाँसे मैदानहरुको नाम लेख्नुहोस् ।
उत्तर अमेरिकाको प्रेरिज, अस्ट्रेलियाको डाउन्स, युरोपको स्टेप्स र दक्षिण अमेरिकाको पम्पास ।
८८. भूमध्यसागरको वरिपरि कस्तो प्रकारको हावापानी पाइन्छ ?
हिउँदमा बर्षा र ठन्डा तथा ग्रीष्ममा न्यानो र सुक्खा ।
८९. सभानाको ऊष्ण घाँसे मैदानी क्षेत्रलाई किन विश्वको चिडियाखाना पनि भनिन्छ ?
हात्ती, गैंडा, जिराफ, अर्ना, बाघ, सिँह लगायतका प्रशस्त जङ्गली जनावर र चराचुरुङ्गीहरु रहने हुनाले ।
९०. विश्वकै सबैभन्दा होचो भूभाग कुन हो र यो समुद्र सतहभन्दा कति मिटर तल रहेको छ ?
मृत सागर, ४१८ मिटर ।
९१. अमेरिकाको वासिङ्टन र न्युयोर्क सहरहरु कुन नदीको किनारमा रहेको छ ?
क्रमश : पोटोम्याक र हड्सन नदी
९२. नेपालको हिमाली प्रदेशमा बसोवास गर्ने कुनै चार मुख्य जातिहरु नाम लेख्नुहोस् ।
शेर्पा, थकाली, डोल्पो, मुगाली ।
९३. नेपालको पहाडी प्रदेश समुद्र सतहबाट कति मिटरको उचाइमा रहेको छ ?
६०० देखि २८०० मिटर
९४. नेपालको तराई प्रदेशमा रहेका कुनै चारवटा मुख्य धार्मिक स्थलहरुको नाम लेख्नुहोस् ।
वराह क्षेत्र, जानकी मन्दिर, गढीमाई, लुम्बिनी ।
९५. हेरोडोटसले लेखेको पहिलो पुस्तकको नाम के हो ?
९६. कुबलाय खाँको दरबारमा रेसम मार्गबाट आएका इटालियन अन्वेषक को थिए ?
९७. नेपालमा गणतन्त्रको स्थापना भएको पुरा मिति विक्रम सम्बत्मा लेख्नुहोस् ।
२०६५ जेष्ठ १५
९८. “घर मानिसको खानापछिको दोश्रो आवश्यकता हो ।” यो भनाइ कसको हो ?
जाँ बु्रन्हेस
९९. हेरोडोटसलाई इतिहासका पिता भनेर सम्मानित गर्ने व्यक्ति को थिए ?
रोमन राजनीतिज्ञ मार्केस टुल्टियस सिसेरो ।
१००. वैज्ञानिक इतिहासका पिता भनिने थ्युसिडाइडसले ४२१ ई.पू. मा लेखेको पुस्तक कुन हो ?
पेलोपोनेसियन युद्धको इतिहास ।
१०१. विश्लेषणात्मक इतिहास लेखन प्रवृत्तिको सुरुवात कसले गरेका थिए ?
रोमन इतिहासकार ग्नायस जेलियस ।
१०२. ढाकामा बनेको मिहिन सुती कपडालाई मध्यकालीन एसियामा के भनिन्थ्यो ?
१०३. इतिहासकार अबुल फजलका अनुसार भारतमा रेसम उद्योग कुन राजाले खोलेका थिए ?
सम्राट् अकवर
१०४. सन् १४९७ मा पुर्तगालदेखि भारत जाने सामुद्रिक बाटो कस्ले पत्ता लगाएको थियो ?
१०५.चीनलाई युरोपसँग जोड्ने व्यापारिक मार्गलाई कस्ले रेसम मार्ग भनी नामाकरण गरेका थिए ?
जर्मन भूगोलविद् तथा यात्री फर्डिनेन्ड भोन रिचटहोफेन
१०६. चीनिया सम्राट् कुबलाय खाँले प्रचलनमा ल्याएको कागजको मुद्रालाई के भनिन्छ ?
थाओ ।
१०७. इशा पूर्व ३१६ मा भारतदेखि अनिकालबाट बच्न नेपाल पसेका जैन धर्म गुरुको नाम के थियो ?
१०८. कर्नाटक युद्ध (१७४६–१७६३) भन्नाले के बुझिन्छ ?
भारतमा इस्ट इन्डिया कम्पनी र फ्रान्सका बीच व्यापारीक स्वार्थका कारण भएको युद्ध ।
१०९. भारतमा आलु कहिले र कस्ले ल्याएका थिए ?
सन् १७०० मा पोर्चुगालीहरुले ।
११०. जर्मन दार्शनिक कार्लमाक्र्सद्धारा लिखित कुनै दुई प्रशिद्ध ग्रन्थहरुको नाम लेख्नुहोस् ।
कम्युनिष्ट घोषणा पत्र र पुँजी
१११. फ्लाइङ सटलको आविष्कार कहिले र कसले गरेका थिए ?
सन् १७३३ मा जोन के
११२. थोरै धनीले धेरै गरिबमाथि शासन गर्‍यो भनी तत्कालीन शासन प्रणालीको विरोध गर्ने को थिए ?
एथेन्सका कानुनका ज्ञाता तथा गीतकार सोलोन ।
११३. एथेन्सका क्लेसथेन्सले प्रजातन्त्रका लागि कुन दुई शव्दहरुको प्रयोग गरेका थिए ?
डेमोस र क्रेटस
११४. १५ जुन १२१५ मा बेलायतका राजा जोनले पारित गरेको म्याग्नाकार्टामा के लेखिएको थियो ?
राजाले स्वेच्छाले नभई कानुन अनुसार मात्र शासन गर्नुपर्छ ।
११५. अमेरिकी स्वतन्त्रता सङ्ग्राम केलाई भनिन्छ ?
अमेरिकीहरु बेलायती उपनिवेशबाट मुक्त हुन सन् १७७५ देखि १७८३ सम्म भएको आन्दोलन ।
११६. अमेरिकाका प्रथम राष्ट्रपति को थिए ?
जर्ज वासिङ्टन ।
११७. भारत बेलायती उपनिवेशबाट स्वतन्त्र भएको पुरा मिति इश्वीसम्बत्मा लेख्नुहोस् ।
१२ अगस्ट १९४६
११८. जात केलाई भनिन्छ ?
वंशपरम्परा, धर्म, गुण, आकृति, वासस्थान आदिका आधारमा विभाजित मनुष्यको वर्ग ।
११९. वर्ण व्यवस्थाका लागि सिर्जना गरिएका चार मुख्य जातहरु के के थिए ?
ब्राह्मण, क्षेत्री, वैश्य र शूद्र ।
१२०. नेपालमा रहेका दलितहरुको तीनओटा समूह कुन कुन हुन् ?
पहाडी दलित, नेवारी दलित र मधेसी दलित ।
१२१. जातीय तथा अन्य सामाजिक छुवाछुत र भेदभाग गर्ने व्यक्तिलाई नेपालमा कस्तो सजाय हुन्छ ?
तीन महिनादेखि तीन बर्षसम्म कैद र पचास हजारदेखि दुई लाखसम्म जरिवाना ।
१२२. जाति केलाई भनिन्छ ?
एकै प्रकारका शारीरिक बनोट र विशेषता भएका मानिसको समूह । जस्तै आर्य, मङ्गोल आदि ।
१२३. जनजाति कस्लाई भनिन्छ ?
आफ्नै धर्म, भाषा, संस्कृति, परम्परा एवम् रीतिरिवाज भएका र कुनै निश्चित भौगोलिक क्षेत्रमा बसोबास गर्ने जाति ।
१२४. पहिचान भनेको के हो ?
व्यक्ति, लिङ्ग, जाति, राष्ट्र, संस्कृति, धर्म, भुगोल, राजनीति, आर्थिक अवस्था आदिमा आधारित खास परिचय वा चिनारी ।
१२५. नेपालमा वि.सं. २०४७ सालको संविधान कस्ले घोषणा गरेको थियो ?
तत्कालिन राजा वीरेन्द्र शाह ।
१२६. नेपालको सार्वभौमसत्ता कोसँग छ ?
नेपाली जनतासँग ।
१२७. नेपालको वर्तमान संविधानको प्रस्तावनामा कुन शासन व्यवस्थाको उल्लेख गरिएको छ ?
सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्रात्मक शासन व्यवस्था ।
१२८. नेपालको वर्तमान संविधान अनुसार तीन तहमा कुन कुन अदालतहरुको व्यवस्था गरिएको छ ?
सङ्घमा सर्वोच्च अदालत, प्रदेशमा उच्च अदालत र जिल्लामा जिल्ला अदालत ।
१२९. नेपालको निर्वाचन आयोगमा प्रमुख आयुक्त बाहेक अन्य कतिजना आयुक्तहरु रहन्छन् ?
चारजना ।
१३०. नेपालमा प्रतिनिधि सभा र प्रदेश सभा सदस्य निर्वाचनका लागि कुन कुन निर्वाचन प्रणालीको व्यवस्था छ ?
पहिलो हुने निर्वाचित हुने प्रणाली र समानुपातिक प्रणाली ।
१३१. राष्ट्रिय सभाको निर्वाचनमा कुन कुन निर्वाचन प्रणाली अपनाइन्छ ?
प्रत्यक्ष र एकल सङ्क्रमणीय ।
१३२. नेपालको सङ्घीय संसद् अर्थात् प्रतिनिधि सभा र राष्ट्रिय सभामा क्रमश : कति कतिजना सदस्यहरु रहन्छन् ?
२७५ र ५९
१३३. राष्ट्र केलाई भनिन्छ ?
जनता, भूमि, सार्वभौमसत्ता र सरकारको संयुक्त रुप ।
१३४. राष्ट्रियता भनेको के हो ?
राष्ट्रप्रतिको अगाध आस्था वा प्रेमभाव ।
१३५. राष्ट्रिय सुरक्षा भन्नाले के बुझिन्छ ?
देशको सार्वभौमसत्ता, स्वाधिनता र भौगोलिक अखण्डताको रक्षा गर्ने वा नागरिकलाई सुरक्षित अनुभुति गराउने कार्य ।
१३६. मानव वस्ती भनेको के हो ?
जमिनमा प्रत्यक्ष रुपमा देख्न सकिने एक सांस्कृतिक भूस्वरुप ।
१३७. आकारका आधारमा मानव वस्तीका प्रकारहरु उल्लेख गर्नुहोस् ।
कृषिगृह, हाम्लेट, गाउँ, बजार, सहर आदि ।
१३८. आर एन मुखर्जीका विचारमा ग्रामीण बस्तीको परिभाषा के हो ?
बढी समानता, अनौपचारिकता, प्राथमिक समूह, कम जनघनत्व र कृषि व्यवसाय मुख्य पेशा भएको सामुदायिक स्वरुप ।
१३९. नेपालमा नगर घोषणा गर्नका लागि हिमाली, पहाडी र तराई क्षेत्रमा क्रमश : कति कति जनसङ्ख्या हुनुपर्छ ?
१०,०००; ४०,००० र ७५,०००
१४०. हाम्लेट भनेको के हो ?
एउटै जाति वा परिवारका मानिसहरु बसोवास गर्ने समूदाय वा गाउँको पूर्व अवस्था ।
१४१. नगरमाल केलाई भनिन्छ ?
बृहत् महानगर भन्दा उपल्लो स्तरमा परिणत भएको नगर ।
१४२. नेपालमा सर्वप्रथम जनगणना लिइएको साल वि.सं.मा उल्लेख गर्नुहोस् ।
१४३. नेपालमा सबैभन्दा बढी र कम जनसङ्ख्या भएका प्रदेशहरु कुन कुन हुन् ?
वाग्मती र कर्णाली ।
१४४. जनसाङ्ख्यकीय घटना केलाई भनिन्छ ?
जीवनमा एकचोटि मात्र घटित जन्म र मृत्यु जस्ता घटनाहरु ।
१४५. जनसाङ्ख्यिक सङ्क्रमण केलाई भनिन्छ ?
जनसाङ्ख्यकीय घटनाका प्रभावले गर्दा जनसङ्ख्यामा आउने परिवर्तनको प्रक्रिया ।
१४६. जनसाङ्ख्यिक लाभांश भनेको के हो ?
आश्रित जनसङ्ख्या भन्दा आर्थिक रुपले सक्रिय जनसङ्ख्या बढी भई आर्थिक बृद्धिको सम्भावना रहेको अवस्था ।
१४७. जनसाङ्ख्यिक अवसरको झ्याल भनेको के हो ?
जनसाङ्ख्यिक लाभांशको अवस्था निरन्तर रहेको एक निश्चित समयावधिमा देशको आर्थिक उपलब्धिका लागि प्राप्त अवसर ।
१४८. जनसङ्ख्या व्यवस्थापन भनेको के हो ?
कुनै क्षेत्र वा देशमा उपलब्ध प्राकृतिक स्रोतसाधन अनुसार जनसङ्ख्यालाई सही रुपले वितरण गर्ने कार्य ।
१४९. हालको नेपालको अर्थतन्त्रका आधारहरु उल्लेख गर्नुहोस् ।
कृषि, उद्योग, पर्यटन, जलस्रोत र मानव संसाधन
१५०. तपाईँ बस्ने पर्यावरणीय क्षेत्रमा अनुकूलन हुन तपाईले गर्नुभएका कुनै दुईवटा उपायहरु लेख्नुहोस् ।
अनुकूलनका लागि मेरो क्षेत्रका चाडपर्वहरुमा सहभागी हुने र यहाँका वासिन्दाहरुसँग असल सम्बन्ध बनाउने गरेको छु ।
१५१. आयुर्वेदिक चिकित्सा पद्धतिको एक सकारात्मक पक्ष लेख्नुहोस् ।
हाम्रै वनपाखामा पाइने जडीबुटीको उपयोगले बनाइएका नकारात्मक असर अति न्यून हुने औषधीहरुको प्रयोग हुनु ।
१५२. योग र ध्यानको एक/एक वटा महत्व लेख्नुहोस् ।
योगले समग्र चेतनालाई मिलाउँदै स्वस्थ लचिलो शरीर र शान्त एकाग्र मन प्रदान गर्छ । ध्यानले मन शान्त बनाई करुणा भावनको विकास गर्छ ।
१५३. विपद जोखिम दृष्टिकोणमा तपाई रहेको वस्ती कस्तो प्रकारको वस्ती हो ? यदि जोखिमयुक्त भएमा यस्ता जोखिमबाट सुरक्षित गर्ने कुनै एक नाता लेख्नुहोस् ।
१५४. आहार र स्वस्थ जीवनको सम्बन्ध एक वाक्यमा प्रष्ट पार्नुहोस् ।
स्वस्थ खानपिनले व्यक्तिको शारीरिक र मानसिक स्वास्थ्यलाई तन्दुरुस्त राख्न मद्दत गर्छ ।
१५५. वैदेशिक व्यापार घाटा किन वृद्धि हुन्छ ?
निर्यातभन्दा बढी मूल्यको आयात गर्नाले ।
१५६. नेपालमा कतिवटा स्थानीय सरकारहरु छन् ?
१५७. नेपालको पहिलो सहकारी संस्था कुन हो ?
वि.सं. २०१३ मा चितवनको शारदानगरमा स्थापित बखान ऋण सहकारी संस्था ।
१५८. विप्रेषण भनेको के हो ?
विदेशमा काम गरेर प्राप्त पारिश्रमिकबाट स्वदेशमा पठाएको रकम ।
१५९. औपचारिक कारोवारहरुको परिचय दिनुहोस् ।
कुल राष्ट्रिय उत्पादनमा गणना हुने तथा कानुन बमोजिम दर्ता भएर सञ्चालन भएका सबै कारोवारहरु ।
१६०. श्रम र रोजगारीको परिचय दिनुहोस् ।
आयआर्जन सम्बद्ध काम श्रम हो । श्रमिकले नियमित रुपमा श्रम गर्न पाएको अवसर रोजगारी हो ।
१६१. कस्तो रोजगारीलाई कार्यगत रोजगारी भनिन्छ ?
रोजगारदाताले कुनै खास काम वा सेवा किटान गरी सो सम्पन्न गर्न तोकिदिएको रोजगारी ।
१६२. कस्तो रोजगारीलाई आकस्मिक रोजगारी भनिन्छ ?
रोजगारदाताले श्रमिकलाई एक महिनाको अवधिमा सात दिन वा सोभन्दा कम अवधिका लागि दिएको रोजगारी ।
१६३. आंशिक रोजगारी भनेको के हो ?
हप्तामा पैंतिस हप्ता वा सोभन्दा कम समयमा काम सम्पन्न गर्ने गरी दिएको रोजगारी ।
१६४. कर आय भनेको के हो ?
आय, मुनाफा र पुँजीगत लाभमा लाग्ने कर ।
१६५. गैरकर आय भनेको के हो ?
सम्पत्तिबाट प्राप्त आय, जस्तै ब्याज, लाभांश, रोयल्टी, आदि ।
१६६. प्रत्यक्ष कर भनेको के हो ?
जुन व्यक्ति वा संस्था माथि कर लगाइएको हो उसैले तिर्ने कर, जस्तै आयकर, पारिश्रमिक कर, यातायात कर आदि ।
१६७. सामाजिक स्वास्थ्य भनेको के हो ?
मानिसले आफ्नो घर, परिवार, छिमेकी, जेष्ठ नागरिक, अपाङगता भएका व्यक्तिसँग गर्ने सामाजिक व्यवहार ।
१६८. एलोप्याथी भनेको के हो ?
आधुनिक चिकित्सा पद्धति ।
१६९. आयुर्वेद अनुसार हाम्रो स्वास्थ्य कुन तत्वहरुमा आधारित हुन्छ ?
वात, पित्त र कफ अर्थात् त्रिदोश वा त्रिस्तम्भ ।
१७०. नेपालको पहिलो आयुर्वेद अस्पताल र औषधी उत्पादक कम्पनीको नाम लेख्नुहोस् ।
नरदेवी आयुर्वेद चिकित्सालय र सिंहदरबार वैद्यखाना ।
१७१. योग तथा प्राकृतिक चिकित्सा पद्धति भनेको के हो ?
औषधीको सेवन नगर िउपचार गरिने पञ्चमहाभूतमा आधारित विधि ।
१७२. निरोधात्मक स्वास्थ्य सेवा भनेको के हो ?
रोग लाग्नुभन्दा अगावै रोकथामका लागि प्रदान गरिने स्वास्थ्य सेवा ।
१७३. प्रवर्धनात्मक स्वास्थ्य सेवा भनेको के हो ?
स्वास्थ्य स्थितिलाई सुधार्नका निम्ति प्रदान गरिेने स्वास्थ्य सेवा ।
१७४. उपचारात्मक स्वास्थ्य सेवा भनेको के हो ?
रोग लागेपछि त्यसलाई निको पार्नका लागि प्रदान गरिने स्वास्थ्य सेवा ।
१७५. ई–स्वास्थ्यको परिचय दिनुहोस् ।
विद्युतीय प्रक्रिया तथा सञ्चार माध्यमबाट गरिने स्वास्थ्योपचार पद्धति ।
१७६. योगका आठ अङ्गका नाम लेख्नुहोस् ।
यम, नियम, आसन, प्राणायम, प्रत्याहार, धारण, ध्यान र समाधि ।
१७७. भुजङ्गासनको अवस्था उल्लेख गर्नुहोस् ।
शरीरलाई जमिनमा राखी सास लिँदै नाइटोभन्दा माथिको भागलाई जमिनदेखि माथि उठाउने ।
१७८. भ्रामरी प्राणायामको फाइदा लेख्नुहोस् ।
शरीर शान्त, मन एकाग्र तथा उच्च रक्तचाप र डिप्रेसनको समस्या कम गराउँछ ।
१७९. ध्यान भनेको के हो ?
मनमा विचार, इच्छा, स्मृति र महत्वाकाङ्क्षा केही नरही मौनको स्थितिमा पुगेको अवस्था ।
१८०. खेलकुदका कुनै दुई फाइदा लेख्नुहोस् ।
तन्दुरुस्ती कायम हुने र सामाजिकीकरणका सिप विकासमा सघाउ पुग्ने ।
१८१. मितव्ययी जीवनशैली भनेको के हो ?
स्रोतसाधनको उचित मात्रामा उपयोग गरी बढी लाभ लिने बान िर व्यवहार ।
१८२. बिनायोजना धन खर्च गर्नाको बेफाइदा उल्लेख गर्नुहोस् ।
दिनचर्या र आर्थिक व्यवहार पनि अव्यवस्थित बनी व्यक्तिमा तनाव सिर्जना हुने र पारिवारिक सम्बन्ध र सामाजिक प्रतिष्ठामा आघात पुग्ने ।
१८३. मानिसको शरीरका ७२,००० नाडीहरुलाई कुन कुन तीन भागमा विभाजन गरिन्छ ?
इला, पिङ्गला र सुसुम्ना ।
१८४. विपश्यना ध्यानको परिचय दिनुहोस् ।
स्वाभाविक रुपमा आएको गएको श्वासको गतिलाई हेरिरहने अर्थात् मौनताद्धारा शरीर र मनलाई नियन्त्रण गर्ने विधि ।
१८५. कपालभातीको कुनै दुई फाइदा उल्लेख गर्नुहोस् ।
पाचन प्रणालीलाई राम्रो बनाउने तथा मुटु र फोक्सोमा रहेका अवरोधहरुलाई हटाउने ।
सामाजिक कक्षा ११ महत्वपूर्ण बुँदाहरु:
स्वास्थ्य : रोग र दुर्वलताबाट मुक्त हुनु मात्र नभई शारीरिक, मानसिक तथा सामाजिक तवरले पूर्ण तन्दुरुस्त हुनु । (विश्व स्वास्थ्य सङ्गठन) ।
शारीरिक स्वास्थ्य : मानव शरीरको कुनै पनि अङ्गमा रोग नभएको, सबै अङ्गहरुले उपयुक्त रुपमा काम गर्न सकेको अवस्था ।
मानसिक स्वास्थ्य : कुनै पनि किसिमको दबाब, तनाव तथा मानसिक रोग नभएको अवस्था ।
सामाजिक स्वास्थ्य : घर, परिवार, छिमेकी, साथीभाइ, आफन्त, जेष्ठ नागरिक, असहाय र अपाङ्गता भएका व्यक्ति प्रति उचित व्यवहार प्रदर्शन गरेको अवस्था ।
स्वास्थ्य सेवामा पहुँच : नागरिकले स्वास्थ्य सेवा लिनसक्ने र स्वास्थ्यप्रदायक सङ्घसंस्थाले स्वास्थ्य सेवा प्रदान गर्नसक्ने क्षमता, र त्यस्तो क्षमता नागरिकको आर्थिक, सामाजिक, भौगोलिक, स्थानीय र राष्ट्रिय परिवेशमा निर्भर हुने ।
स्वास्थ्य सेवाको गुणस्तर निर्धारण गर्ने कुराहरु : प्रचलित स्वास्थ्य नीति तथा कार्यक्रम, स्वास्थ्य सेवाप्रति नागरिकको धारणा, औसत आयु, शिशु मृत्युदर, बाल मृत्युदर, मातृमृत्युदर आदि ।
सामुदायिक सहभागिता : कुनै पनि क्षेत्रको विकास प्रक्रियामा समुदायका मानिसहरुको सहभागिता वा संलग्नता वा चासो । उदाहरणका लागि नेपालमा स्वास्थ्य स्वयम्सेविका र सामुदायिक स्वास्थ्य कार्यकर्ताहरुको परिचालन । समुदायमा सरसफाइ कार्यक्रम, जनचेतनामूलक कार्यक्रम, स्वास्थ्य शिविर आदिको सञ्चालन । बालरोगको एकीकृत व्यवस्थापन कार्यक्रम, विस्तारित खोप कार्यक्रम, परिवार नियोजन तथा मातृशिशु सेवा कार्यक्रम, भिटामिन ए को कमी र अन्धोपन नियन्त्रण परियोजना, एचआइभि/एड्स, औलो, कालाजार आदि जस्ता रोगहरुको नियन्त्रणसँग सम्बन्धित कार्यक्रमहरु ।
नेपालको संविधानको भाग ३ धारा ३५ : स्वास्थ्य सम्बन्धी हक (१) प्रत्येक नागरिकलाई राज्यबाट आधारभूत स्वास्थ्य सेवा नि:शुल्क प्राप्त गर्ने हक हुनेछ र कसैलाई पनि आकस्मिक स्वास्थ्य सेवाबाट वञ्चित गरिने छैन । (२) प्रत्येक व्यक्तिलाई आफ्नो स्वास्थ्य उपचारको सम्बन्धमा जानकारी पाउने हक हुनेछ । (३) प्रत्येक नागरिकलाई स्वास्थ्य सेवामा समान पहुँचको हक हुनेछ । (४) प्रत्येक नागरिकलाई स्वच्छ खानेपानी तथा सरसफाइमा पहुँचको हक हुनेछ ।
पृष्ठ १७७
एलोप्याथी : आधुनिक चिकित्सा पद्धति । वीर अस्पताल वि.सं. १९४७ ।
आयुर्वेद चिकित्सा पद्धति : आयुको अर्थ जीवन र वेदको अर्थ विज्ञान । आयुर्वेदअनुसार हाम्रो स्वास्थ्य वात, पित्त र कफ गरी तीन तत्व (त्रिदोश वा त्रिस्तम्भ) मा आधारित हुन्छ । सिँहदरवार वैद्यखाना (, नरदेवी आयुर्वेद चिकित्सालय (, नेपालकै पहिलो औषधि उत्पादक कम्पनी । आयुर्वेद तथा अन्य वैकल्पिक चिकित्साको विकासका लागि योगमाया आयुर्वेद विश्वविद्यालयको स्थापना ( भएको छ ।
वातः वायु र अाकाश तत्वबाट बनेको । शरिरमा रुखाेपन, कम्पन, विचलन ।
पित्तः अग्नि र जल तत्वबाट बनेको । पाचन शक्ति कमजोर, हर्मोन र मनोरोग ।
कफः पृथ्वी र जल तत्वबाट बनेको । भोकप्यास र निद्राको कमि ।
योग तथा प्राकृतिक चिकित्सा पद्धति : औषधीको सेवन नगरी उपचार गरिने, पञ्चमहाभूत (पृथ्वी, जल, तेज, वायु र आकाश) मा आधारित विधि । योग, ध्यान, मालिस, अकुपन्चर, अकुप्रेसर, जल तथा मृत्तिका उपचार पद्धति, उपवास, शारीरिक कसरत, भोजन परामर्श लगायतका विधिहरु प्रयोग गरी निरोग र दीर्घजीवन प्रदान गर्ने ।
युनानी चिकित्सा पद्धति : युनान (ग्रीक) का बुकरात (हिप्पोक्रेट) द्वारा सुरु गरेको मानिने यस विधिले पनि मानिसको शरीरमा रोगको मूल कारण पञ्चमहाभूतको असन्तुलन नै मानेको छ । खासगरी शरीरमा चारवटा दोषहरु अर्थात् रगत, कफ, पहेँलो पित्त र कालो पित्तको उपस्थिति रहेको मानिन्छ । नेपालमा वि.सं. १९९० देखि सञ्चालनमा रहेको ।
होमियोप्याथिक चिकित्सा पद्धति : सन् १७९६ मा जर्मन चिकित्सक समुएल हन्नेमानले सिर्जना गरेको यस पद्धतिमा रोगीको लक्षण र चिह्नअनुसार समानता (होमियो)का आधारमा भौतिक रुपमा न्यून तथा शक्तिकृत औषधीद्वारा रोग (प्याथोज) उपचार गरिन्छ । नेपालमा वि.सं. २००४ मा होमियोप्याथिक अध्ययनका लागि कोलोम्बो प्लान अन्तर्गत व्यवस्था मिलाइएको थियो । वि.सं. २०१० मा ललितपुरमा पशुपति होमियोप्याथिक चिकित्सालय स्थापना भएको थियो । (होमियोप्याथी_चिकित्सा_पद्धती)
परम्परागत स्थानीय उपचार पद्धति : स्थानीय स्तरमा अपनाउँदै र पुस्तान्तरण हुँदै आएको पद्धति । जडीबुटी, मन्त्रोच्चारण र झारफुक विभिन्न धर्मावलम्बी, जात, सम्प्रदाय अनुसारको चलन । केही अन्धविश्वास समेत रहेको ।
निरोधात्मक स्वास्थ्य सेवा : रोग लाग्नुभन्दा अगावै रोकथामका लागि प्रदान गरिने स्वास्थ्य सेवा ।
प्रवर्धनात्मक स्वास्थ्य सेवा : स्वास्थ्य स्थिति सुधार्नका लागि प्रदान गरिने स्वास्थ्य शिक्षा, पोषण, वातावरणीय स्वास्थ्य आदि ।
उपचारात्मक स्वास्थ्य सेवा : रोग लागेपछि रोग निको पार्नका लागि प्रदान गरिने सेवा ।
ई–स्वास्थ्य : विद्युतीय प्रक्रिया तथा सञ्चार माध्यमबाट गरिने स्वास्थ्योपचार पद्धति । (पृष्ठ १७९)
दूर उपचार सेवा : सूचना प्रविधिको प्रयोग गरी टाढैबाट बिरामीको उपचार, परामर्श आदि उपलब्ध गराइने । (पृष्ठ १८०)
आयुर्वेदिक चिकित्साका सकारात्मक पक्षहरु : उपचार पछि शारीरिक तथा मानसिक दुवै पक्षमा सुधार हुने । प्राकृतिक एवम् स्थानीय रुपमा नै उपलब्ध जडीबुटीहरुको उपयोगबाट बनाइने औषधीको दुष्प्रभाव नहुने । अनेकौं दीर्घरोगमा विशेषरुपले फलदायी । रोगनिरोधक क्षमता अधिक हुने । खानपिन र आहारव्यहारमा सुधार ल्याउने अपेक्षाकृत सस्तो सुलभ तथा सरल ।
प्राकृतिक चिकित्सका विशेषताहरु : स्व–चिकित्सा, लोक–चिकित्सा अनाक्रामक आदि विधिका रुपमा चिनिने एक रचनात्मक पद्धति । प्रकृतिमा प्रचुरमात्रामा उपलब्ध तत्वहरुको उचित उपयोग गरी रोगलाई जरैबाट निर्मूल पार्ने एक क्रान्तिकारी कला । औषधिविहीन उपचार पद्धति पनि भनिने यो उपाय खासगरी प्रकृतिका सामान्य नियमहरुमा आधारित छ ।
स्वस्थ जीवनशैली : मानिसलाई स्वास्थ र सुखी बनाउने खालको जीवनयापनको तरिका । (पृष्ठ १८१)
करिब ९० प्रतिशत रोगहरु खराब जीवनशैलीका कारण लाग्ने गर्दछन् । व्यक्तिगत स्वच्छता, खराब लत नभएको, स्वास्थ्य शिक्षामा सचेतना, सुरक्षित वातावरणप्रतिको सजगता, शारीरिक रुपमा स्वस्थ, उचित सामाजिकीकरण र आत्मिय सम्बन्ध ।
शारीरिक, मानसिक र आत्मिक स्वास्थ्य ।
सामाजिक जीवनलाई सन्तुलित गर्ने उपायहरु (पृष्ठ १८३)
स्वस्थ जीवनशैलीमा खानपिनको भूमिका महत्वपूर्ण हुन्छ ।
पृष्ठ १८५
किशोरावस्था : बाल्यकाल र वयस्क उमेर बीचको अर्थात् १० देखि १९ बर्ष बीचको सङ्क्रमणकालीन चरण । जागरणको विकास, इच्छाशक्तिको बढोत्तरी र आत्मसंयम बृद्धि गर्नुपर्ने अवस्था ।
किशोरावस्थाका चुनौतीहरु : आफ्नो काम, व्यवहार र व्यक्तित्वले आफ्ना साथी समूहमा अलग पहिचान स्थापित गर्नुपर्ने । तर आफ्ना स्वप्निल सपनाको दुनियाँमा हराउँदा महत्वकाङ्क्षा वा सपना पूरा नहुन सक्ने । कल्पनाको उडानबाट सुरक्षित र सिर्जनशील अवतरण गम्भीर चुनौती । यो आँधी र तुफानको उमेरमा किशोरकिशोरीहरु हतास र निराश हुनसक्छन् । हडबडाउने, अभिभावकहरुको विचारमा विमति जनाउने, चाँडै रिसाउने, झर्किने, छिट्टै फुरुङ्ग परिहाल्ने । हर्मोनमा आएको परिवर्तन र मनोवैज्ञानिक दबाबका कारण थप चुनौती ।
स्वमूल्याङ्कनका लागि पृष्ठ १८६ देखि १८७ को फारम भरी अङ्क गणना गर्नुहोस् ।
योग : युज् धातुबाट बनेको योग शव्दको अर्थ हो शरीर, मन र आत्मालाई एकआपसमा जोड्नु – समाधि वा विचार, कल्पना, आवेग, रिस र अहंकार जस्ता चित्त वृत्तिहरुबाट मुक्त हुनु । सन् २०१४ डिसेम्बर ११ मा संयुक्त राष्ट्रसङ्घले हरेक बर्ष जुन २१ गते विश्व योग दिवसका रुपमा मनाउने निर्णय गरेको हो । (
योग शव्दको प्रयोग सर्वप्रथम ऋग्वेदमा भएको मानिन्छ । योग हिन्दुहरुको ६ वटा दर्शनहरु मध्येको एक महत्वपूर्ण दर्शन पनि हो । योगको प्रवर्धक मानिने पतञ्जलीका अनुसार “हेयम् दु:खम् अनपातम्” अर्थात् “दु:ख आउनुभन्दा अगाडि नै यसलाई रोक्नु” योगको लक्ष्य हो ।योग
एकैसाथ वा मिश्रित रुपमा अभ्यास गर्न सकिने योगका आठ अङ्गहरु (यम, नियम, आसन, प्राणायम, प्रत्याहार, धारण, ध्यान, र समाधि) लाई अष्टाङ्ग योग भनिन्छ । (पृष्ठ १८८)
योगका लागि गर्नुपर्ने आधारभूत क्रियाहरु : (पृष्ठ १८९)
१, शरीर तताउने शुक्ष्म व्यायामहरु
२, जोर्नीहरु घुमाउने
३, योगासन
क) सूर्य नमस्कार (पृष्ठ १९०)
प्रणाम–हस्तउत्थान–हस्तपादासन–अश्व सञ्चालन– पर्वतासन–शाष्टाङ्ग दण्डवत–भुजङगासन–पर्वतासन–अश्व सञ्चालन–हस्तपादासन–हस्तउत्थान–प्रणाम । (
योग निद्रा : उत्तानो परेर दुवै खुट्टा फट्याउने र दुवै हात शरीरको छेउमा फैलाई हत्केलालाई आकाशतर्फ फर्काउने, खुट्टादेखि टाउकोसम्म एकपछि अर्को अङ्गलाई विश्राम दिँदै जाने क्रिया ।
प्राणायाम : विभिन्न श्वासप्रश्वासका प्रक्रियाहरुद्धारा शक्तिको सही परिचालन गरी शरीरमा उर्जा प्राप्त गर्नु । प्राण (जीवनदायी उर्जा) र आयाम (निश्चित दिशा) गरी दुई शव्दबाट बनेको प्राणायामका विभिन्न तरिकाहरु छन् :
२, कपालभाति
३, नाडीशोधन अनुलोम विलोम
४, ध्यान : विचार, इच्छा, स्मृति र महत्वाकाङ्क्षा केही नरही मन स्थिर भएको भावनाविहीन मौनको अवस्था वा आन्तरिक स्वभाव ।
सूदर्शन क्रिया ध्यान : श्री श्री रविशङ्करद्वारा प्रतिपादित यस ध्यानको अभ्यासले शरीर, मन र भावनालाई एक लयमा ल्याउँछ ।
विपश्यना ध्यान : गौतम बुद्धद्वारा प्रतिपादित यस ध्यानले मनलाई स्वस्थ, शान्त र स्वच्छ राख्छ ।
ओशो ध्यान : आचार्य रजनीशद्वारा प्रतिपादित यस ध्यानबाट प्राप्त ऊर्जाले खुशी र प्रेमभावले मानव सम्बन्ध प्रगाढ हुन्छ ।
नेपालको अर्थतन्त्रका आधारहरु :
१) कृषि – कृषिप्रधान मुलुक । खाद्यान्न आपूर्ति, आम्दानी र रोजगारीका हिसाबले ६०.४ प्रतिशत जनसङ्ख्या कृषिमा आबद्ध । देशको कुल गार्हस्थ उत्पादनमा २७.६ प्रतिशत योगदान । कृषिमा आधुनिकीकरण र व्यवसायीकरणको क्रम बढिरहेको ।
२) उद्योग – ग्रामीण क्षेत्रमा कुटीर उद्योग र सहरी क्षेत्रमा साना तथा मझौला उद्योगको बाहुल्यता । कुल गार्हस्थ उत्पादनमा ५.५ प्रतिशत योगदान । वि.सं. २०७५/७६ फागुनसम्ममा नेपालमा ७,८३२ उद्योगहरु सञ्चालनमा रहेका । विदेशी लगानी भित्रिदै । करिब ६ लाख जनताले रोजगारी पाएको । धेरैजसो उद्योगहरु कृषिमै आधारित ।
३) पर्यटन – धेरै प्रकारका पर्यटन प्रवद्र्धन गरी प्रशस्त विदेशी मुद्रा आर्जन गर्न सकिने सम्भावना । हाल पर्यटकको सरदर बसाइ १३ दिन । सन् २०२५ सम्म बार्षिक २५ लाख पर्यटकको लक्ष्य ।
४) जलस्रोत – ४२,००० मेगावाट जलविद्युत उत्पादन क्षमता । आ.ब. २०७६/७७ फागुन मसान्तसम्ममा १०८३.१३ मेगावाट उत्पादन । कुल २९,५७७.८ मेगावाट उत्पादनको तयारी । २०७५ देखि २०८५ सालसम्म ऊर्जा तथा जलस्रोत दशक । कुल २६ लखा ४१ हजार हेक्टर कृषियोग्य जमिनमध्ये २२ लाख ६५ हजार हेक्टर सिँचाइयोग्य । करिब १४ लाख हेक्टरमा सिँचाइ छ ।
५) मानव संसाधन – सक्रिय जनसङ्ख्या बढी भएको । स्वदेशी रोजगारीका अतिरिक्त वैदेशिक रोजगारीले विप्रेषण रकम भित्रिने तर बौद्धिक जनशक्ति पलायन समस्याको रुपमा रहेको ।
विप्रेषण रकम = विदेशमा काम गरेर प्राप्त पारिश्रमिकलाई आफ्नो घरपरिवार चलाउनका लागि स्वदेशमा पठाएको रकम ।
नेपालको अर्थतन्त्रका विशेषता :
१) निर्वाहमुखी कृषि प्रणाली ।
२) औद्योगिकीकरणमा सुस्तता
३) न्यून आय तथा जीवनस्तर – कृषिमा लुकेको रोजगार समेत ।
४) पुँजी र स्रोत साधनको अभाव
५) आयातमुखी अर्थतन्त्र
६) आयमा असमानता – २१ प्रतिशत जनता गरिबीको रेखामुनी ।
पृष्ठ १५३
तीन खम्बे नीति = सार्वजनिक, निजी तथा सहकारी गरी तीनओटै क्षेत्रबीच एकआपसमा सहकार्य गरी जनतालाई बढीभन्दा बढी सुविधा दिने नीति ।
सार्वजनिक क्षेत्र = सरकारी । तीन तहका सरकारद्धारा आर्थिक विकासमा सक्रिय रहने । सङ्घीय वा केन्द्रीय सरकारले राष्ट्रिय सोच, उद्देश्य, लक्ष्य तथा प्राथमिकता पूरा गर्नका लागि अरु तहसँग सहकार्य, समन्वय र साझेदारी गर्ने । सात प्रदेशका सरकारहरुले आफ्ना प्रदेशमा विकासका उपयुक्त वातावरण सिर्जना गरी अन्तरप्रदेश प्रतिस्पर्धाका आधारमा विकासका योजना तथा कार्यक्रमहरु सञ्चालन गर्ने । ७५३ ओटा स्थानीय सरकार वा पालिकाहरुले नागरिकलाई आधारभूत सेवा प्रदान गर्ने ।
निजी क्षेत्र = आठौं पञ्चवर्षीय योजना (सन् १९९२ – १९९६) मा नेपालमा खुला तथा उदार अर्थतन्त्रको अवधारणा कार्यान्वयनमा आएपछि निजी क्षेत्रको भूमिका अझ महत्वपूर्ण बन्न गएको । पन्ध्रौं योजनाले निजी क्षेत्रबाट ५५.६ प्रतिशत लगानी हुने अपेक्षा गरेको छ । नाफामूलक हुने भए तापनि यसले सामाजिक उत्तरदायित्वलाई समेत वहन गर्नुपर्ने ।
सहकारी क्षेत्र = वि.सं. २०१० मा सहकारी विभागको स्थापना । २०१३ सालमा चितवनको शारदानगरमा बखान ऋण सहकारी स्थापना । २०७५ सालसम्ममा करिब ३४,७०० सहकारी संस्था क्रियाशील । यसले स्थानीय स्रोत, साधन, श्रम र पुँजीको परिचालन गरी रोजगारीको सिर्जना, आय वृद्धि तथा गरिबी निवारणमा सहयोग पुर्‍याउने ।
पृष्ठ १५८
वि.सं. २०४६ पछि नेपालले खुला बजार नीति अवलम्बन गरेको हुनाले नेपालीहरु वैदेशिक रोजगारीमा आकर्षित । करिब ५० लाख नेपालीहरु यसरी बाहिरिएका छन् । गत आर्थिक बर्षमा विप्रेषणबाट कुल गार्हस्थ उत्पादनको २२.६३ प्रतिशत योगदान । जुन ७ खर्व ८३ अर्ब बराबरको रकम हो र त्यो बर्षको कुल बजेटकै करिब आधा रकम हो । वैदेशिक रोजगारीबाट फर्किएकाहरु मार्फत् सामाजिक पुँजीका रुपमा सिप, प्रविधि र अनुभव पनि भित्रिएको छ । विप्रेषण रकम भरपर्दो वा दीगो आय भने होइन ।
विप्रेषणको फाइदा : निम्न र मध्यम वर्गका जनताको आयस्तरमा वृद्धि भई गरिवी निवारण र आर्थिक सामाजिक विकास ।
विप्रेषणको बेफाइदा : राष्ट्रिय उत्पादन बृद्धिमा नकारात्मक असर परी अनुत्पादक र उपभोग्य वस्तुको आयातमा तीब्र बृद्धि ।
पृष्ठ १६१
आर्थिक कारोबार = वस्तु वा सेवाको खरिदबिक्री गरिने कार्य ।
कारोवारका प्रकारहरु :
क) स्थानीय कारोवार = स्थानीय स्तरमा उत्पादन भएका वस्तु वा सेवा त्यहीँ नै बिक्री गने कार्य । ऐँचोपैँचो, सरसापट, मेलापात, हारगुहार, आदिबाट स्थानीय आवश्यकताहरु पूरा गर्नु ।
ख) अनौपचारिक कारोवार = कुल राष्ट्रिय उत्पादनमा गणना नगरिने कतै पनि दर्ता नहुने र राज्यलाई कर पनि प्राप्त नहुने कारोवारहरु । भन्सार छली, ढुकुटी, जुवातास, घुसखोरी, अवैध यौनधन्दा, मानव बेचबिखन, लागुऔषध कारोवार आदि ।
ग) औपचारिक कारोवार = कुल राष्ट्रिय उत्पादनमा गणना गरिने कानुनत: दर्तावाल कारोवार । (पृष्ठ १६३) ।।
पृष्ठ १६४
कृषिमा आधुनिकीकरण र व्यवसायीकरणको आवश्यकता ।
प्राचिन र मध्यकालमा नेपालका औद्योगिक उत्पादनहरु भारतका गणराज्यहरु र तिब्बतमा समेत निकासी हुन्थे । नेपालमा आधुनिक औद्योगिक विकासको सुरुवात सन् १९४० मा औद्योगिक परिषद् स्थापना भएपछि भएको हो । सन् १९४६ मा रघुपति जुटमिल खुलेपछि ठुला उद्योगको सुरुवात भएको हो । औद्योगिक क्षेत्रहरुले औद्योगिकरणकालाई प्रोत्साहित गरेका छन् ।
औद्योगिक नीति तथा औद्योगिक व्यवसाय ऐनमा निर्माण व्यवसायलाई उद्योगका रुपमा परिभाषित गरिएको छ ।
पृष्ठ १६७
श्रम = आयआर्जनसँग सम्बद्ध काम । काम गरेर आम्दानी गर्नु वा समय वा काम विक्री गरी आम्दानी गर्नु ।
रोजगारी = नियमित रुपमा श्रम गर्ने अवसरको प्राप्ती ।
श्रमिक = पारिश्रमिक लिई रोजगारदाताका लागि शारीरिक वा बौद्धिक कार्य गर्ने कामदार वा कर्मचारी वा जुनसुकै पदनाम दिई काममा लगाइएको व्यक्ति ।
रोजगारीका किसिमहरु :
१) नियमित रोजगारी = तुलनात्मकरुपमा लामो समयावधिको तथा मासिक, साप्ताहिक वा दैनिक पारिश्रमिक तोकिएको ।
२) कार्यगत रोजगारी = रोजगारदाताले कुनै खास काम वा सेवा किटान गरी सो सम्पन्न गर्न तोकेर दिएको ।
३) समयगत रोजगारी = रोजगारदाताले निश्चित समायावधि तोकी सो अवधिभित्र सम्पन्न गर्ने शर्तमा दिएको ।
४) आकस्मिक रोजगारी = रोजगारदाताले एक महिनामा सात दिन वा सोभन्दा कम अवधिका लागि दिएको ।
५) आंशिक रोजगारी = हप्तामा पैंतिस घण्टा वा सोभन्दा कम समयका लागि दिएको ।
नोट : रोजगारीले हामीलाई खोज्दैन, हामीले श्रम बजारमा रोजगारी खोज्ने हो । रोजगारीका लागि सधैं अर्काको मुख ताक्नै पर्ने पनि होइन । स्वरोजगार बन्न पनि सकिन्छ ।
वि.सं. २०५६ र २०६२ मा श्रम नीतिको र २०७१ मा राष्ट्रिय रोजगार नीति बनेको ।
श्रम ऐन २०७४, बाल श्रम निवारणसम्बन्धी राष्ट्रिय गुरुयोजना २०७५–८५ समेत बनेको ।
उद्यमशील संस्कृति = पेशा व्यवसायप्रति आकर्षित भई जोखिम बहन गर्नु र सिर्जनशीलरुपले आर्थिक क्रियाकलाप गर्नु ।
नेपालमा रोजगार प्रवर्धन गर्ने उपायहरु : आफ्नो रुचि, सिप, दक्षता तथा उपलब्ध स्रोत साधन तथा अवसरहरुको उपयोग गरी रोजगारीको सिर्जना गर्न उत्प्रेरित गर्ने । सफल उद्यमी व्यवसायीहरुका प्रेरणादायी कथाहरु अध्ययन र मनन गर्ने । समस्यासँग जुधेर नयाँ नयाँ उपायहरुको खोजी गरी अघि बढ्न हिम्मत जुटाउने । मनपरेको काम खोज्ने भन्दा पनि कामलाई मन पराउने प्रवृत्तिको विकास गर्ने । श्रमिकको सेवा, पारिश्रमिक र अन्य सुविधा तथा सुरक्षाको उचित व्यवस्था गर्ने ।
पृष्ठ १७०
सरकारी वित्त : सरकारले जनताबाट विभिन्न कर, शुल्क, दण्ड जरिवाना आदिका माध्यमबाट सङ्कलन गर्ने आम्दानी र त्यसको खर्चको समग्र रुप । यसका लागि अघिल्लो बर्षको आम्दानी खर्चको समीक्षा र आगामी बर्षको अनुमानित बजेट तयार गरिन्छ ।
सरकारी वित्तको स्रोत वा सरकारी आय :
कर आय गैरकर आय
आय, मुनाफा र पुँजीगत लाभमा लाग्ने कर सम्पत्तिबाट प्राप्त आय (व्याज, लाभांश, रोयल्टी आदि)
पारिश्रमिकमा आधारित कर वस्तु तथा सेवा बिक्रीबाट प्राप्त रकम
सम्पत्ति कर दण्ड, जरिवाना र जफतबाट प्राप्त रकम
वस्तु तथा सेवामा आधारित कर (मूल्य अभिवृद्धि कर, बिक्री कर, भन्सार कर, अन्त:शुल्क आदि) स्वेच्छिक हस्तान्तरण वा उपहारबाट प्राप्त रकम
कर राजस्व बाहेकका अन्य पुँजीगत राजस्वहरु
वैदेशिक व्यापारमा आधारित कर वैदेशिक अनुदान
अन्य करहरु नगद मौज्दात तथा बेरुजु असुलीबाट प्राप्त रकम
कर = केवल सरकारद्धारा लगाइने अनिवार्य भुक्तानी हो । कर तिरेवापत करदातालाई सरकारले प्रत्यक्ष लाभ प्रदान गदैन ।
प्रत्यक्ष कर : जुन व्यक्ति वा संस्थामाथि कर लगाइएको हो उसले तिर्ने कर । यातायात, आय, आदिमा लाग्ने कर ।
अप्रत्यक्ष कर : एउटा माथि लगाइएको तर अर्काले तिर्ने कर । मूल्य अभिवृद्धि कर, बिक्रीकर आदि ।
सरकारी खर्च : सरकारले राज्य सञ्चालनका क्रममा गर्ने खर्च । (पृष्ठ १७२ को तालिका)
चालु खर्च : सरकारले नियमित रुपमा गर्नुपर्ने अनिवार्य खर्चहरु । जस्तै प्रशासनिक खर्चहरु ।
पुँजीगत खर्च : राज्यलाई विकसित बनाउन र जनतालाई सुविधा दिलाउनका लागि गर्ने खर्चहरु ।
चालु भन्दा पुँजीगत खर्च बढी भयो भने देशको विकास छिटो हुन्छ ।
नेपालको अर्थतन्त्रका आधारहरु :
१) कृषि – कृषिप्रधान मुलुक । खाद्यान्न आपूर्ति, आम्दानी र रोजगारीका हिसाबले ६०.४ प्रतिशत जनसङ्ख्या कृषिमा आबद्ध । देशको कुल गार्हस्थ उत्पादनमा २७.६ प्रतिशत योगदान । कृषिमा आधुनिकीकरण र व्यवसायीकरणको क्रम बढिरहेको ।
२) उद्योग – ग्रामीण क्षेत्रमा कुटीर उद्योग र सहरी क्षेत्रमा साना तथा मझौला उद्योगको बाहुल्यता । कुल गार्हस्थ उत्पादनमा ५.५ प्रतिशत योगदान । वि.सं. २०७५/७६ फागुनसम्ममा नेपालमा ७,८३२ उद्योगहरु सञ्चालनमा रहेका । विदेशी लगानी भित्रिदै । करिब ६ लाख जनताले रोजगारी पाएको । धेरैजसो उद्योगहरु कृषिमै आधारित ।
३) पर्यटन – धेरै प्रकारका पर्यटन प्रवद्र्धन गरी प्रशस्त विदेशी मुद्रा आर्जन गर्न सकिने सम्भावना । हाल पर्यटकको सरदर बसाइ १३ दिन । सन् २०२५ सम्म बार्षिक २५ लाख पर्यटकको लक्ष्य ।
४) जलस्रोत – ४२,००० मेगावाट जलविद्युत उत्पादन क्षमता । आ.ब. २०७६/७७ फागुन मसान्तसम्ममा १०८३.१३ मेगावाट उत्पादन । कुल २९,५७७.८ मेगावाट उत्पादनको तयारी । २०७५ देखि २०८५ सालसम्म ऊर्जा तथा जलस्रोत दशक । कुल २६ लखा ४१ हजार हेक्टर कृषियोग्य जमिनमध्ये २२ लाख ६५ हजार हेक्टर सिँचाइयोग्य । करिब १४ लाख हेक्टरमा सिँचाइ छ ।
५) मानव संसाधन – सक्रिय जनसङ्ख्या बढी भएको । स्वदेशी रोजगारीका अतिरिक्त वैदेशिक रोजगारीले विप्रेषण रकम भित्रिने तर बौद्धिक जनशक्ति पलायन समस्याको रुपमा रहेको ।
विप्रेषण रकम = विदेशमा काम गरेर प्राप्त पारिश्रमिकलाई आफ्नो घरपरिवार चलाउनका लागि स्वदेशमा पठाएको रकम ।
नेपालको अर्थतन्त्रका विशेषता :
१) निर्वाहमुखी कृषि प्रणाली ।
२) औद्योगिकीकरणमा सुस्तता
३) न्यून आय तथा जीवनस्तर – कृषिमा लुकेको रोजगार समेत ।
४) पुँजी र स्रोत साधनको अभाव
५) आयातमुखी अर्थतन्त्र
६) आयमा असमानता – २१ प्रतिशत जनता गरिबीको रेखामुनी ।
पृष्ठ १५३
तीन खम्बे नीति = सार्वजनिक, निजी तथा सहकारी गरी तीनओटै क्षेत्रबीच एकआपसमा सहकार्य गरी जनतालाई बढीभन्दा बढी सुविधा दिने नीति ।
सार्वजनिक क्षेत्र = सरकारी । तीन तहका सरकारद्धारा आर्थिक विकासमा सक्रिय रहने । सङ्घीय वा केन्द्रीय सरकारले राष्ट्रिय सोच, उद्देश्य, लक्ष्य तथा प्राथमिकता पूरा गर्नका लागि अरु तहसँग सहकार्य, समन्वय र साझेदारी गर्ने । सात प्रदेशका सरकारहरुले आफ्ना प्रदेशमा विकासका उपयुक्त वातावरण सिर्जना गरी अन्तरप्रदेश प्रतिस्पर्धाका आधारमा विकासका योजना तथा कार्यक्रमहरु सञ्चालन गर्ने । ७५३ ओटा स्थानीय सरकार वा पालिकाहरुले नागरिकलाई आधारभूत सेवा प्रदान गर्ने ।
निजी क्षेत्र = आठौं पञ्चवर्षीय योजना (सन् १९९२ – १९९६) मा नेपालमा खुला तथा उदार अर्थतन्त्रको अवधारणा कार्यान्वयनमा आएपछि निजी क्षेत्रको भूमिका अझ महत्वपूर्ण बन्न गएको । पन्ध्रौं योजनाले निजी क्षेत्रबाट ५५.६ प्रतिशत लगानी हुने अपेक्षा गरेको छ । नाफामूलक हुने भए तापनि यसले सामाजिक उत्तरदायित्वलाई समेत वहन गर्नुपर्ने ।
सहकारी क्षेत्र = वि.सं. २०१० मा सहकारी विभागको स्थापना । २०१३ सालमा चितवनको शारदानगरमा बखान ऋण सहकारी स्थापना । २०७५ सालसम्ममा करिब ३४,७०० सहकारी संस्था क्रियाशील । यसले स्थानीय स्रोत, साधन, श्रम र पुँजीको परिचालन गरी रोजगारीको सिर्जना, आय वृद्धि तथा गरिबी निवारणमा सहयोग पुर्‍याउने ।
पृष्ठ १५८
वि.सं. २०४६ पछि नेपालले खुला बजार नीति अवलम्बन गरेको हुनाले नेपालीहरु वैदेशिक रोजगारीमा आकर्षित । करिब ५० लाख नेपालीहरु यसरी बाहिरिएका छन् । गत आर्थिक बर्षमा विप्रेषणबाट कुल गार्हस्थ उत्पादनको २२.६३ प्रतिशत योगदान । जुन ७ खर्व ८३ अर्ब बराबरको रकम हो र त्यो बर्षको कुल बजेटकै करिब आधा रकम हो । वैदेशिक रोजगारीबाट फर्किएकाहरु मार्फत् सामाजिक पुँजीका रुपमा सिप, प्रविधि र अनुभव पनि भित्रिएको छ । विप्रेषण रकम भरपर्दो वा दीगो आय भने होइन ।
विप्रेषणको फाइदा : निम्न र मध्यम वर्गका जनताको आयस्तरमा वृद्धि भई गरिवी निवारण र आर्थिक सामाजिक विकास ।
विप्रेषणको बेफाइदा : राष्ट्रिय उत्पादन बृद्धिमा नकारात्मक असर परी अनुत्पादक र उपभोग्य वस्तुको आयातमा तीब्र बृद्धि ।
पृष्ठ १६१
आर्थिक कारोबार = वस्तु वा सेवाको खरिदबिक्री गरिने कार्य ।
कारोवारका प्रकारहरु :
क) स्थानीय कारोवार = स्थानीय स्तरमा उत्पादन भएका वस्तु वा सेवा त्यहीँ नै बिक्री गने कार्य । ऐँचोपैँचो, सरसापट, मेलापात, हारगुहार, आदिबाट स्थानीय आवश्यकताहरु पूरा गर्नु ।
ख) अनौपचारिक कारोवार = कुल राष्ट्रिय उत्पादनमा गणना नगरिने कतै पनि दर्ता नहुने र राज्यलाई कर पनि प्राप्त नहुने कारोवारहरु । भन्सार छली, ढुकुटी, जुवातास, घुसखोरी, अवैध यौनधन्दा, मानव बेचबिखन, लागुऔषध कारोवार आदि ।
ग) औपचारिक कारोवार = कुल राष्ट्रिय उत्पादनमा गणना गरिने कानुनत: दर्तावाल कारोवार । (पृष्ठ १६३) ।।
पृष्ठ १६४
कृषिमा आधुनिकीकरण र व्यवसायीकरणको आवश्यकता ।
प्राचिन र मध्यकालमा नेपालका औद्योगिक उत्पादनहरु भारतका गणराज्यहरु र तिब्बतमा समेत निकासी हुन्थे । नेपालमा आधुनिक औद्योगिक विकासको सुरुवात सन् १९४० मा औद्योगिक परिषद् स्थापना भएपछि भएको हो । सन् १९४६ मा रघुपति जुटमिल खुलेपछि ठुला उद्योगको सुरुवात भएको हो । औद्योगिक क्षेत्रहरुले औद्योगिकरणकालाई प्रोत्साहित गरेका छन् ।
औद्योगिक नीति तथा औद्योगिक व्यवसाय ऐनमा निर्माण व्यवसायलाई उद्योगका रुपमा परिभाषित गरिएको छ ।
पृष्ठ १६७
श्रम = आयआर्जनसँग सम्बद्ध काम । काम गरेर आम्दानी गर्नु वा समय वा काम विक्री गरी आम्दानी गर्नु ।
रोजगारी = नियमित रुपमा श्रम गर्ने अवसरको प्राप्ती ।
श्रमिक = पारिश्रमिक लिई रोजगारदाताका लागि शारीरिक वा बौद्धिक कार्य गर्ने कामदार वा कर्मचारी वा जुनसुकै पदनाम दिई काममा लगाइएको व्यक्ति ।
रोजगारीका किसिमहरु :
१) नियमित रोजगारी = तुलनात्मकरुपमा लामो समयावधिको तथा मासिक, साप्ताहिक वा दैनिक पारिश्रमिक तोकिएको ।
२) कार्यगत रोजगारी = रोजगारदाताले कुनै खास काम वा सेवा किटान गरी सो सम्पन्न गर्न तोकेर दिएको ।
३) समयगत रोजगारी = रोजगारदाताले निश्चित समायावधि तोकी सो अवधिभित्र सम्पन्न गर्ने शर्तमा दिएको ।
४) आकस्मिक रोजगारी = रोजगारदाताले एक महिनामा सात दिन वा सोभन्दा कम अवधिका लागि दिएको ।
५) आंशिक रोजगारी = हप्तामा पैंतिस घण्टा वा सोभन्दा कम समयका लागि दिएको ।
नोट : रोजगारीले हामीलाई खोज्दैन, हामीले श्रम बजारमा रोजगारी खोज्ने हो । रोजगारीका लागि सधैं अर्काको मुख ताक्नै पर्ने पनि होइन । स्वरोजगार बन्न पनि सकिन्छ ।
वि.सं. २०५६ र २०६२ मा श्रम नीतिको र २०७१ मा राष्ट्रिय रोजगार नीति बनेको ।
श्रम ऐन २०७४, बाल श्रम निवारणसम्बन्धी राष्ट्रिय गुरुयोजना २०७५–८५ समेत बनेको ।
उद्यमशील संस्कृति = पेशा व्यवसायप्रति आकर्षित भई जोखिम बहन गर्नु र सिर्जनशीलरुपले आर्थिक क्रियाकलाप गर्नु ।
नेपालमा रोजगार प्रवर्धन गर्ने उपायहरु : आफ्नो रुचि, सिप, दक्षता तथा उपलब्ध स्रोत साधन तथा अवसरहरुको उपयोग गरी रोजगारीको सिर्जना गर्न उत्प्रेरित गर्ने । सफल उद्यमी व्यवसायीहरुका प्रेरणादायी कथाहरु अध्ययन र मनन गर्ने । समस्यासँग जुधेर नयाँ नयाँ उपायहरुको खोजी गरी अघि बढ्न हिम्मत जुटाउने । मनपरेको काम खोज्ने भन्दा पनि कामलाई मन पराउने प्रवृत्तिको विकास गर्ने । श्रमिकको सेवा, पारिश्रमिक र अन्य सुविधा तथा सुरक्षाको उचित व्यवस्था गर्ने ।
पृष्ठ १७०
सरकारी वित्त : सरकारले जनताबाट विभिन्न कर, शुल्क, दण्ड जरिवाना आदिका माध्यमबाट सङ्कलन गर्ने आम्दानी र त्यसको खर्चको समग्र रुप । यसका लागि अघिल्लो बर्षको आम्दानी खर्चको समीक्षा र आगामी बर्षको अनुमानित बजेट तयार गरिन्छ ।
सरकारी वित्तको स्रोत वा सरकारी आय :
कर आय गैरकर आय
आय, मुनाफा र पुँजीगत लाभमा लाग्ने कर सम्पत्तिबाट प्राप्त आय (व्याज, लाभांश, रोयल्टी आदि)
पारिश्रमिकमा आधारित कर वस्तु तथा सेवा बिक्रीबाट प्राप्त रकम
सम्पत्ति कर दण्ड, जरिवाना र जफतबाट प्राप्त रकम
वस्तु तथा सेवामा आधारित कर (मूल्य अभिवृद्धि कर, बिक्री कर, भन्सार कर, अन्त:शुल्क आदि) स्वेच्छिक हस्तान्तरण वा उपहारबाट प्राप्त रकम
कर राजस्व बाहेकका अन्य पुँजीगत राजस्वहरु
वैदेशिक व्यापारमा आधारित कर वैदेशिक अनुदान
अन्य करहरु नगद मौज्दात तथा बेरुजु असुलीबाट प्राप्त रकम
कर = केवल सरकारद्धारा लगाइने अनिवार्य भुक्तानी हो । कर तिरेवापत करदातालाई सरकारले प्रत्यक्ष लाभ प्रदान गदैन ।
प्रत्यक्ष कर : जुन व्यक्ति वा संस्थामाथि कर लगाइएको हो उसले तिर्ने कर । यातायात, आय, आदिमा लाग्ने कर ।
अप्रत्यक्ष कर : एउटा माथि लगाइएको तर अर्काले तिर्ने कर । मूल्य अभिवृद्धि कर, बिक्रीकर आदि ।
सरकारी खर्च : सरकारले राज्य सञ्चालनका क्रममा गर्ने खर्च । (पृष्ठ १७२ को तालिका)
चालु खर्च : सरकारले नियमित रुपमा गर्नुपर्ने अनिवार्य खर्चहरु । जस्तै प्रशासनिक खर्चहरु ।
पुँजीगत खर्च : राज्यलाई विकसित बनाउन र जनतालाई सुविधा दिलाउनका लागि गर्ने खर्चहरु ।
चालु भन्दा पुँजीगत खर्च बढी भयो भने देशको विकास छिटो हुन्छ ।
जनसङ्ख्या = गणना गर्दा आउने मानिसहरुको परिमाण । कुनै खास ठाउँमा कुनै निश्चित समयमा बसोबास गर्ने मानिसहरुको कुल सङ्ख्या ।
विकास = कुनै व्यक्ति, संस्था, समाज वा राष्ट्रको भौतिक, मानसिक, बौद्धिक उन्नतिको गतिशील प्रक्रिया । विद्यमान प्राकृतिक, भौतिक, मानवीय र सांस्कृतिक आदि क्षेत्रहरुमा आउने सकारात्मक परिवर्तन ।
जनसङ्ख्या र विकास एकअर्काका पूरक हुन् ।
सन् १९९४ मा जनसङ्ख्या र विकास सम्बन्धी अन्तराष्ट्रिय सम्मेलन इजिप्टको कायरोमा सम्पन्न ।
जनसङ्ख्या बृद्धि = विद्यमान जनसङ्ख्यामा जन्म र बाहिरबाट बसाइँ सरेर आएका कारण थपिने मानिसहरुको सङ्ख्या ।
नेपालमा सर्वप्रथम वि.सं. १९६८ मा जनगणना लिइएको थियो । त्यसपछि प्रत्येक दशदश बर्षमा जनगणता लिइँदै आएको छ ।
जनसङ्ख्याको प्रादेशिक वितरण = देशको भौगोलिक तथा प्रशासनिक क्षेत्रका आधारमा छरिएर रहेको जनसङ्ख्या ।
वि. सं. २०६८ को जनगणना अनुसार, भौगोलिक रुपमा हिमालमा ६.७, पहाडमा ४३ र तराईमा ५०.३ प्रतिशत तथा प्रादेशिक रुपमा प्रदेश १ देखि क्रमश : १७, २०, २१, ९, १७, ६ र १० प्रतिशत जनसङ्ख्या रहेको ।
असमान जनसङ्ख्या वितरणका कारण = भूवनोट, उत्पादकत्व, हावापानी, रोजगारी लगायतका पूर्वाधार आदि ।
पृष्ठ १४०
जनसाङ्ख्यिकीय घटना = जीवनमा एकचोटिमात्र घटित जन्म र मृत्युजस्ता घटनाहरु ।
जनसाङ्ख्यिक सङ्क्रमण = जनसाङ्ख्यिकीय घटनाका प्रभावले जनसङ्ख्या बृद्धिदरमा आउने परिवर्तनको प्रक्रिया । पहिलो पटक यो शव्दको प्रयोग सन् १९४५ मा एफ डब्ल्यु नोटिस्टेनले गरेका थिए ।
जनसाङ्ख्यिक सङ्क्रमणका तीन अवस्थाहरु :
प्रारम्भिक – जन्मदर र मृत्युदर दुवै उच्च भई जनसङ्ख्यामा बिस्तारै वृद्धि ।
मध्य – शिक्षा र स्वास्थ्यमा प्रगति हुनाले मृत्युदरमा कमी आएपनि जन्मदर उच्च नै रहनाले जनसङ्ख्यामा तीब्र वृद्धि ।
आधुनिक – विभिन्न क्षेत्रमा विकास हुनाले जन्मदर र मृत्युदर दुवैमा कमी आएर जनसङ्ख्या घट्ने ।
जनसङ्ख्याको उमेर संरचना = उमेर समूहअनुसार जनसङ्ख्याको वितरण । नेपालमा १४ बर्षमुनि र ६० बर्ष माथिका उमेर समूहलाई आश्रित तथा १५ देखि ५९ बर्ष उमेर समूहलाई सक्रिय जनसङ्ख्या भनिन्छ ।
उमेर संरचनाको सङ्क्रमणका तीन चरणहरु :
१) मृत्युदर घट्ने तर जन्मदर बढ्ने भई बालबालिकाहरुको सङ्ख्या अधिक हुने ।
२) मृत्युदर घट्दै गर्दा जन्मदरमा गिरावट आउनाले सक्रिय जनसङ्ख्या बढि देखिने ।
३) जन्मदर र मृत्युदर दुबै घट्दै गएमा वृद्धवृद्धाहरुको सङ्ख्या अधिक हुने ।
सन् १९५० देखि निरन्तर जन्मदर र मृत्युदरमा आएको कमीले गर्दा जापानलाई वृद्धवृद्धाहरुको देश भनिन्छ ।
जन्मदर कम भए बाल आश्रित दर कम हुन्छ तर वृद्धवृद्धाहरुको सङ्ख्या भने बढिरहने हुनाले केही दशकपश्चात् फेरि कुल आश्रित दर बढ्छ । बालबालिकाको सङ्ख्या बढ्नु भनेको शिक्षा र स्वास्थ्यमा राज्यको लगानी बढ्नु हो । त्यो सङ्ख्या सक्रिय समुहका रुपमा परिवर्तन हुँदा राज्यले उनीहरुलाई आर्थिक उन्नयनमा सदुपयोग गर्ने र वृद्ध हुँदा सामाजिक सुरक्षाका बारेमा योजना बनाउनु पर्ने हुन्छ । जनसङ्ख्या वृद्धिको सुरु र अन्तिम दुवै अवस्थामा आश्रित दर उच्च हुन्छ ।
जनसाङ्ख्यिक लाभांश वा बोनस = आश्रित जनसङ्ख्या भन्दा सक्रिया जनसङ्ख्या बढी भई आर्थिक वृद्धिको सम्भावना वा अवसर रहने भएकोले जनसाङ्ख्यिक अवसरको झ्याल पनि भनिने यस अवस्थाको सही सदुपयोग गर्न सकेमा देशको अर्थ व्यवस्थामा उन्नती हुन्छ । सन् १९६० को दशकमा सिङ्गापुर, कोरिया, थाइल्याण्ड र मलेसियाले यसरी नै प्रगति गरेका थिए ।
सन् १९८१ र २०११ बीचमा नेपालको प्रजनन दर (६.३ बाट ४.१) र मृत्युदर (१३.५ बाट ६) घटेको तथा औसत आयु (४५.३ बाट ६९) बढेको कुरालाई विचार गर्दा सक्रिय जनसङ्ख्या बढी भई सन् २०४७ सम्म आर्थिक विकासको सम्भावना प्रवल देखिन्छ ।
जनसाङ्ख्यिक लाभांशको उपयोगका उपायहरु : (पृष्ठ १४३ मा दिइएको ) ।
पृष्ठ १४४
जनसङ्ख्या व्यवस्थापन = उपलब्ध प्राकृतिक स्रोतसाधनअनुसार जनसङ्ख्यालाई सही रुपले वितरण गर्ने कार्य । उपलब्ध स्रोतसाधनको उपलब्धताका आधारमा जनसङ्ख्या बढाउनु वा घटाउनु ।
जन्म विरुद्धको नीतिले जनसङ्ख्या घटाउन र जन्म पक्षको नीतिले बढाउन प्रोत्साहन गर्छ । जनसङ्ख्या नियन्त्रणको प्रत्यक्ष उपायले जन्मदर र बसाइँसराइँमा ध्यान दिन्छ भने अप्रत्यक्ष उपायले मानिसको चेतना स्तर बढाउन चासो राख्छ ।
जनसङ्ख्या व्यवस्थापनका प्रत्यक्ष उपायहरु = परिवार नियोजनका साधनहरुको प्रयोग, कानुनी रुपमा थोरै सन्तान जन्माउन प्रोत्साहन, उचित जन्मान्तर, उपयुक्त उमेरमा विवाह, बसाइँसराइँमा नियन्त्रण ।
जनसङ्ख्या व्यवस्थापनका अप्रत्यक्ष उपायहरु = शिक्षा र स्वास्थ्य अवस्थामा सुधार, रोजगारीको अवसर, सहरीकरणको विकास, सामाजिक सुरक्षाको प्रत्याभूति, महिला सशक्तिकरणमा जोड, जनसङ्ख्याको अनुपातमा पर्याप्त स्रोतसाधनको व्यवस्था ।
राष्ट्रियता प्रवर्धन गर्ने उपायहरु
१, नेपाली राष्ट्रिय झण्डा, राष्ट्रगान, राष्ट्रको नक्सा र राष्ट्र एवम् सरकार प्रमुख प्रति उच्च सम्मान, अगाध आस्था र प्रेमभाव जगाउने कार्यक्रमहरु गर्ने ।
२, नेपाली मौलिक संस्कृति, सम्पदा, भाषा, भेष, कला र संस्कृति प्रति प्रेमभाव व्यवहारमै झल्कने कार्यहरु गर्ने ।
३, स्वदेशमा नै रोजगारीका अवसर सृजना गर्ने र स्वदेशी उत्पादनलाई प्रोत्साहन गर्ने परिपाटीको विकास गर्ने ।
४, विविधतामा एकता र सहिष्णुता कायम राख्दै समग्र राष्ट्रिय समृद्धिको भावना अभिवृद्धि गर्ने ।
५, विदेशमा सिकेका ज्ञान सिप र प्रविधिलाई देशभित्रै उपयोग गर्ने ।
६, देशका साँध, सिमाहरु अरुले मिच्दा आवाज उठाउने ।
७, राष्ट्रको उत्थान र भलाइका लागि चिन्तन एवम् सद्भाव र भाइचाराको वातावरण बनाउन अग्रसर हुने ।
पृष्ठ १२८
बस्ती : मानिसको बसोबास भएको अथवा जमिनमा प्रत्यक्ष रुपमा देख्न सकिने एक सांस्कृतिक भूस्वरुप ।
जीन ब्रुन्हेसका अनुसार खानापछि मानिसको दोश्रो आवश्यकता निद्रा हो र यसका लागि उसलाई घर चाहिन्छ ।
एल्सवर्थ हन्टिङटनका अनुसार खाना र कपडापछि मासिलाई आश्रय र सुरक्षाका निम्ति घरको आवश्यकता पर्छ ।
आर एल सिङका अनुसार कुनैपनि उद्देश्यले निर्मित घर तथा सडक गल्लीहरुलाई बस्ती भनिन्छ ।
बस्तीका प्रकारहरु :
क) अवस्थितिका आधारमा
मैदानी बस्ती – समथर र उब्जाउ जमिन । माटो र ईट्टाले बनेका आयाताकार घरहरु । टायलका छाना ।
पर्वतीय बस्ती – ढुङ्गाले बनेका घर । जाडो धेरै हुने ठाउँमा थोरै र साना झ्याल भएका होचा घरहरु ।
ताल वा समुद्र किनारको बस्ती – मत्स्य व्यवसायमा निर्भर । डुबान क्षेत्रमा भने खम्बामाथि ठड्याइएका घर ।
मरुभूमिको बस्ती – मरुद्यान वा ओसिस । डोम वा गोलाकार घर भएका वृत्ताकार बस्तीहरु ।
ख) घरहरुका बीचको दुरीका आधारमा
एक्लो वा एकाकी बस्ती – कृषि फार्ममा निर्माण गरिने । मौसमी गोठ र धनसारहरु ।
छिरलिएको बस्ती – भिरालो भूधरातल, कम उर्वरायुक्त जमिन आदिका कारणले घरहरु टाढाटाढा रहेको ।
गुजुमुज्ज बस्ती – सामाजिक, आर्थिक, धार्मिक र सुरक्षाका कारणले घरहरु नजिकनजिक रहेको ।
ग) समयका आधारमा
अस्थायी बस्ती – द्वन्द्व वा प्राकृतिक विपद्मा परेर बेघर भएका मानिसहरुले शरण लिइरहेको ।
स्थायी बस्ती – जग्गाधनीहरुले जीवनभरका लागि भनेर योजनापूर्वक बनाएका पक्की संरचनाहरु ।
मौसमअनुसारको बस्ती – जाडो वा गर्मी छल्न, वा खेतीपाती र पशुहरुको रेखदेखका लागि बनाइएका कच्ची संरचनाहरु ।
घ) कामका आधारमा
कृषि बस्ती – कृषि, पशुपालनमा आस्रित मानिसहरुको बसोबास भएका उर्वर जमिन । वन र जल सम्पदा नजिक भएका ।
औद्योगिक बस्ती – खनिज स्रोतसाधानहरुको प्रचुरताले गैरकृषि व्यवसायमा संलग्नता । विभिन्न प्रकारका प्रदुषणले प्रभावित ।
व्यापारिक बस्ती – सानाठूला व्यापारिक क्रियाकलापहरुका कारण विभिन्न खालका बजारहरुको विकास र चहलपहल ।
ङ) आकारका आधारमा
कृषिगृह – पशुपालन र खेतिपातीमा संलग्न भई जिविकोपार्जन गर्ने मानिसहरुको छिरलिएको कृषि बस्ती ।
हाम्लेट – एकै जाति वा परिवारका मानिसहरु बस्ने सानो र शान्त मौलिक बस्ती ।
गाउँ वा ग्रामिण बस्ती – प्राथमिक आर्थिक क्रियाकलाप र कम जनसङ्ख्या भएको बस्ती ।
विडल डी लाब्लेकका अनुसार परिवार अथवा वर्गभन्दा ठूलो सामुदायिक स्वरुप ।
आर एन मुखर्जीका अनुसार अपेक्षाकृत रुपमा बढी समानता, अनौपचारिकता, प्राथमिक समूहहरुको प्रधानता, कम जनघनत्व र कृषि व्यवसाय मुख्य पेशा रहेको सामुदायिक स्वरुप ।
बजार – व्यापारिक क्रियाकलापहरुमा संलग्नताले तुलनात्मकरुपमा बढी चहलपहल हुने ।
सहर – ग्रामीण बस्तीको विकसित रुप । बढी जनसङ्ख्या, धेरै सुविधा तथा चहलपहल र गुजुमुज्ज बस्ती । नगरीय सेवा तथा सुविधाहरुका अतिरिक्त नेपालको हकमा हिमाली क्षेत्रमा दशहजार, पहाडी क्षेत्रमा चालिसहजार, भित्री मधेशमा पचासहजार, तराईमा पचहत्तरहजार र काठमाडौं उपत्यकामा एकलाख न्यूनतम जनसङ्ख्या हुनुपर्ने ।
ए बि ग्यालनका अनुसार घर, पसल, सडक र व्यापारिक गतिविधिको व्यवस्था भएको बस्ती ।
भोन रिचथोफेनका अनुसार व्यापार र उद्योग मुख्य पेसा भएको बस्ती ।
राट्जेलका अनुसार घना जनसङ्ख्या र भवनको जमघट तथा बृहत् व्यापारिक गतिविधियुक्त बस्ती ।
सहर विकास भएर नगर, महानगर, बृहत महानगर र नगरमाल समेतमा रुपान्तरण हुनसक्छन् ।
च) आकृतिका आधारमा
रेखाकार – सडक, रेलमार्ग, नदी आदिका छेउकिनारमा निर्माण गरिएका घरहरु ।
वृत्ताकार – ताल, तलाउ वरिपरि वा यस्तो योजना गरी निर्माण गरिएका घरहरु ।
तीर आकार – दुई वा तीनवटा सडक मार्गहरु मिलेर बनेको अँग्रेजी अक्षर वाइ वा टी आकारका किनारमा निर्मित घरहरु ।
पङ्खा आकार – शाखाबाटोहरु भएको बस्तीको छेउ भएर गएको मुख्य सडक मार्गले बनाएको डेल्टा बस्ती ।
तारा आकार – धेरै सडकहरु एकअर्कासँग काटेर बनेको ताराजस्तै आकारका किनारमा निर्मित घरहरु ।
१. पहिलो हुने निर्वाचित हुने निर्वाचन पद्धतिमा मतदाताहरुले आफुले रोजेको उम्मेदवारलाई मत दिन्छन् र त्यसरी सबैभन्दा बढी मत प्राप्त गर्ने उम्मेदवार विजयी हुन्छ । यो वहुमतीय प्रणालीका लागि जनसङ्ख्या र भौगोलिक अनुकुलता तथा विशिष्टताका आधारमा निश्चित सङ्ख्यामा निर्वाचन क्षेत्र कायम गरी प्रत्येक निर्वाचन क्षेत्रबाट एक जना रहने गरी निर्वाचित हुने व्यवस्था गरिन्छ । यसरी निर्वाचन हुने क्रममा विजयी उम्मेदवार र उसको निकटतम प्रतिद्वन्दी बीचको मतको अन्तर जतिपनि हुनसक्ने हुनाले मतदाताहरुको वास्तविक भावनालाई प्रतिनिधित्व नगर्ने दोष रहन्छ । तथापी, यो सबैभन्दा सजिलो एवम् धेरै चल्तीको पद्धति हो । यसले ठूला दल तथा धेरै जनसङ्ख्या भएका वर्गहरुलाई फाइदा भइरहन्छ । नेपालको सङ्घीय संसद् अन्तर्गतको प्रतिनिधि सभाका १६५ र सात प्रदेश सभामा गरी ३३० सदस्यहरु तथा स्थानीय तहका सबै ३५,०४१ प्रतिनिधिहरुको निर्वाचनमा यो पद्धति अपनाइन्छ ।
२. समानुपातिक निर्वाचन पद्धतिमा मतदाताहरुले सम्पूर्ण देश वा प्रदेशलाई एक निर्वाचन क्षेत्र मानी आफुले रोजेको राजनीतिक दललाई मत दिन्छन् । यसरी दलहरुले पाएको मतको अनुपातमा सम्बन्धित दलहरुले बन्द सूचीमा समाबेस गराएका उम्मेदवारहरुलाई विजयी घोषित गरिन्छ । यस प्रणाली बमोजिम हुने निर्वाचनका लागि राजनीतिक दलहरुले उम्मेदवारी दिँदा जनसङ्ख्याको आधारमा महिला, दलित, आदिवासी जनजाति, खस आर्य, मधेसी, थारु, मुस्लिम, पिछडिएको क्षेत्र समेतबाट प्रतिनिधित्व गराउनुपर्ने हुन्छ । नेपालको सङ्घीय संसद् अन्तर्गतको प्रतिनिधि सभाका ११० र सात प्रदेश सभामा गरी २२० सदस्यहरुको निर्वाचनमा यो पद्धति अपनाइन्छ । पहिलो हुने निर्वाचित हुने निर्वाचन पद्धतिले समेट्न नसकेका नागरिकहरुको प्रतिनिधित्वका लागि यो विधि उपयोगी ठानिन्छ । वहुमतीय प्रणालीका दोषहरुको विकल्पमा यो प्रणालीले जनमतको कदर गर्छ ।
३. (माथि दिइएका उत्तरहरुका आधारमा लेख्नुहोस् )
४. प्रवासमा बसेका नेपालीले पनि मतदानमा भाग लिन पाउनुपर्छ भन्ने माग अत्यन्त जायज छ । देशबाहिर रहेको करिब १५ प्रतिशत जनसङ्ख्यालाई मतदानमा नसमेटी निर्वाचन र शासकीय प्रणाली पूर्णरुपमा समावेशी र सहभागीतामूलक भएको दाबी गर्न सकिँदैन । त्यसैले, उचित प्रबन्ध मिलाई प्रवासमा बसेका नेपालीहरुलाई मतदानको अधिकार प्रदान गरिनुपर्छ । यसका लागि एकपटक मतदाता नामावलीमा नाम दर्ता गरिसकेपछि देश छाडेको निश्चित अवधिसम्म देशबाहिरबाट मतदानमा सहभागी हुन पाइने व्यवस्था गर्नु वाञ्छनीय हुन्छ । यसका लागि सम्बन्धित देशमा रहेको नेपाली राजदुताबास र महाबाणिज्यदुताबासमा स्वयम् उपस्थित भई मतदान गर्न पाउने प्रावधान गरिनुपर्छ ।

Transformational grammar= changes in the form of sentences
Sentence negation= changes the meaning of an entire clause, e.g. He is not happy.
Word negation= changes the meaning of just a single word, e.g. He is unhappy.
Yes/No Question= begins with is, am, are, was, were, has, have, do, did, does, will, shall etc., e.g. Is he happy?
Wh-question= begins with what, which, when, why, where, who, or how, e.g. How is he?
Tag-question= consists of an operator plus a pronoun, e.g. He is happy, isn't he?
Contraction= shortening of a word, e.g. I am= I'm
Passivization= changing active form to passive form, e.g. Hari saw a cat. A cat was seen by Hari.
Phonology= study of speech sounds in language
Morphology= study of the internal construction of words
Syntax= set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences
Semantics= study of meanings; it connects the words, meaning and communication
Denotation= explicit, primary or direct meaning, often from a dictionary
Connotation= associated, implicit, figurative or secondary meaning, based on context
Synonym= similar or closely related meaning, e.g. selection for range or choice
Antonym= opposite or inversely related meaning, e.g. married for single
Hyponym= a subcategory of a more general class, e.g. 'chair' and 'table' are hyponyms of 'furniture'
Hypernym= a word including meaning of more specific words, e.g. furniture
Homonym= words having same sound/spelling but different meanings, =homographs/homophones
Homophone= words having same pronunciation but different meaning; e.g. to and two
Homograph= words having same spelling but different meaning, e.g. desert
Heteronym (heterophone)= words having different sounds and meaning but same spelling, e.g. desert
Heterograph= words having different spellings and meaning but same sound, e.g. two and too
(Note: graph for spelling, phone for pronunciation, homo for same, hetero for different)
Pragmatics= study concerned with the use of language in social contexts and the ways people produce and comprehend meanings through language
Discourse= verbal interchange of ideas; especially: conversation
Cohesion= syntactic or semantic (grammatical and logical) connectivity of linguistic forms
Coherence= logical and functional connectedness of a text
Attributive adjective= follows the noun, e.g. 'laughing happily' in the sentence "The child, laughing happily, ran out of the room."
Predicative adjective= follows a verb, e.g. 'unbelievingly rude' in the sentence "The letter was unbelievingly rude."
Clause= a group of words which has its own subject and predicate and is a part of a sentence. E.g. 'he believed' and 'the earth was round' are clauses (former is main clause and later is subordinate clause!) in sentence 'He believed that the earth was round."
Sentence= a combination of words that makes a complete sense.
Subject= person or thing performing the action in a sentence
Predicate= everything in the sentence that follows the subject
Object= person or thing that receives the action in a sentence
Complement= a word needed to complete the meaning of an expression
Adjunct= word/s added to another, but not part of the whole, e.g. 'quickly' in 'Get up quickly!'
Declarative sentence= makes a statement or assertion
Imperative sentence= gives order, makes request or advices
Interrogative sentence= asks question
Exclamatory sentence= expresses surprise, alarm, indignation or a strange opinion
Optative sentence= expresses one's desire and wish
Simple sentence= has only one subject and predicate
Compound sentence= contains only co-ordinate clauses; uses and, but, so, either, or, etc.
Complex sentence= contains principal clause and subordinate clause
Word= group of letters which has a complete meaning
Word Class= a group of words which are similar in function, e.g. noun, pronoun etc.
Affix= element that is added to a base word or root to create a new or inflected form
Prefix= affix that is added to the beginning of the root word, e.g. 'anti' in 'antibody'
Suffix= affix that is added to the end of the root word, e.g. 'ness' in 'slowness'
Infix= affix that is inserted in the middle of the root word, (not common in English)

Vocabulary and Grammar for Class 11 C. Eng.

Dictionary contains at least three forms of information about a word: pronunciation, word class and meaning.

Headword= a word placed at the beginning of an entry in a dictionary

Guideword= a word that appears at the top of each page or column in a dictionary to indicate the first and last entry

Pronunciation= the act of producing the sounds of speech, including articulation, stress, and intonation

Phoneme= a particular set of sounds produced in a particular language, e.g. /p/, /b/, /a/,/e/

Meaning= the denotation, referent, or idea associated with a word; something conveyed or intended

Abbreviation= a shortened form of a written word or phrase; e.g. U= uncountable; OPP= Opposite

BrE= British English; standard dialect of the English language as spoken and written in the UK

AmE= American English; set of varieties of the English language native to the US

Alphabetical Order= sequence of a collection of words arranged in order by position in the alphabet

For example- access, acute, advance, analyze are in alphabetical order.

Word Class= the category of words of similar form or function; parts of speech

Open word classes= can be altered and added to as language develops: noun, verb, adjective, and adverb

Closed word classes= these are pretty much set in stone: other than the open word classes

Noun= name of person, place, thing, or idea: subject, object; proper nouns are capitalized

Types of nouns: 1. Common (general name) 2. Proper (Particular name) 3. Abstract (feelings, ideas, qualities, concepts) 4. Singular (one) 5. Plural (more than one)

Pronoun= more generic version of noun; e.g. I, you, he, she, it, ours, them, who, which, anybody, ourselves

Verb= action word that tells what happens in a sentence; can also show the subject's state of being

Regular verb (ask, believe, love etc.) follows the normal pattern of inflection; Past tense has suffix '-ed'. Irregular verb (break, cost, does etc.) does not follow the normal pattern of inflection.

Adjective=describes nouns or pronouns; e.g. hot, lazy, funny, unique, bright, beautiful, poor, smooth

Adjectives ending in '-ing' describe what someone or something is like, whereas adjectives ending in '-ed' describe how someone feels. e.g. My job is boring. I'm bored with my job.

Adverb=describes verbs, adjectives, and even other adverbs; answers to 'how, where, when, how much, how often'

Some adverbs can be formed by adding suffix '-ly' to an adjective (e.g. regularly, quickly). Likewise some adjectives can be formed by adding suffix '-y' or '-ly' to a noun (e.g. jumpy, lousy, friendly, monthly).

Connecting adverbs (consequently, however, next, still, then etc.) and adverbs of time (tomorrow, yesterday, sometimes etc.) are placed at the beginning of a sentence. Adverbs of frequency (often, rarely, never, always etc.), adverbs of certainty (perhaps, probably, certainly, maybe etc.) and adverbs of comment (smartly, responsibly, intelligently etc.) are placed in the middle of a sentence. Adverbs of manner (correctly, carefully etc.), adverbs of place (upstairs, north etc.) and adverbs of time (afternoon, Saturday etc.) are placed at the end of a sentence.

Conjunction=joins words, phrases, and clauses in a sentence; e.g. and, but, or, so, yet, finally, further, next

Connectives for addition of ideas: and, also, besides, further, furthermore, too, moreover, in addition, then, of equal importance, equally important, another

Connectives for order or sequence: first, second, (etc.), finally, hence, next, then, from here on, to begin with, last of all, after, before, as soon as, in the end, gradually

Connectives for contrast: yet, still, however, but, rather, on the other hand, on the contrary, nevertheless, notwithstanding, in spite of, in contrast to this, although, even though, despite

Connectives for results: therefore, hence, then, it follows that, consequently, accordingly, if this be true, under these circumstances, under these conditions

For other connectives:

Preposition=shows relations between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence; e.g. up, over, against

Types of prepositions: 1. Preposition for place (about, across, against, within, on, to etc.) 2. Preposition for time (after, at, by, since, during etc.) 3. Preposition for agent or instrument (at, by, with etc.) 4. Preposition for manner (by, with, like etc.) 5. Preposition for cause, reason, purpose (of, for with etc.) 6. Preposition for possession (on, of with etc.) Preposition of direction (away from, across, along, out of, up to, past, through, off, into, round, onto, towards)

Determiner=function like adjectives by modifying nouns; e.g. articles (indefinite- a, an, definite- the), these, that, enough, much, which

Interjection=expression that can stand on its own; e.g. ah, whoops, ouch, yeah, hello, thanks, oh well, bye

Free-writing= like brainstorming; exploring ideas through writing without stopping and worrying about formal rules

Paragraph= It has a topic sentence (controlling idea), supporting ideas or evidences, and a concluding remark

Phrase= a group of two or more words functioning as a meaningful unit within a sentence or clause

Noun phrase= e.g. the tiny mouse; Verb phrase= e.g. was reading; Adjective phrase= e.g. very tall; Adverb phrase= e.g. only occasionally; Prepositional phrase= e.g. on the table

Prepositional verb= a verb followed by a preposition; e.g. agree with, approve of, believe in, care for

Homograph= words having same spelling but different meaning and pronunciation, e.g. address, present

Word stress= saying one syllable very loudly than the other syllables of a word; e.g. TEACHer, JaPAN

Sentence stress= pattern of stressed and unstressed words across a sentence; Content words (carry the meaning or sense) are stressed, not structure words (used for correcting grammar)

Limerick= a funny rhyming verse of five lines with the rhyme pattern aabba; limericks emphasize English sentence stress

Will + infinite= A decision at the moment of speaking; e.g. I'll go and get some milk. A prediction based on opinion; e.g. I think the Conservatives will win the next election. A future fact; e.g. The sun will rise tomorrow. For promises/requests/refusals/offers; e.g. I'll help you tomorrow, if you like.

Be going to + infinite= A decision before the moment of speaking; e.g. I'm going to go and get some milk when this TV program finishes. A prediction based on something we can see (or hear) now; e.g. The Conservatives are going to win the election.

Concord= subject-verb agreement; singular subject takes singular verb and plural subject takes plural verb.

Prefix= affix that is added to the beginning of the root word, e.g. 'anti-' in 'antibody'

Suffix= affix that is added to the end of the root word, e.g. '-ness' in 'slowness'

Transitive verb= takes a direct object; e.g. He eats rice.

Intransitive verb= does not need a direct object; e.g. The car stopped suddenly.

Linking verb= links subject with predicate; e.g. forms of be, have, become, seem, appear, feel, get, grow, look, prove, remain, smell, stay, taste, turn

Etymology= history of a linguistic form (such as a word) shown by tracing its development since its earliest recorded occurrence in the language where it is found

Tense= any of the forms of a verb which show the time at which an action happened

Forms of verbs: forget (V1), forgot (V2), forgotten (V3), forgetting (V4), forgets (V5)

Present simple tense= for general , usual, habitual, and always true actions; V1 or V5

Time expressions: every day/week/month/year, usually, generally, regularly, frequently, habitually, repeatedly, once/twice a week/month etc.

Present continuous/progressive tense= action happening exactly now; is/am/are +V4

Time expressions: now, right/just now, at the/this moment, Look! Listen!

Present perfect tense= action started in the past stopped now but there is its effect; has/have +V3

Time expressions: since, for, lately/recently, ever, never, always, seldom, rarely, often, already, yet, today, this week

Present Perfect Continuous tense= action that started in the past is continuing now; has/have +been V4

Time expressions: since, for, lately/recently, ever, never, always, seldom, rarely, often, already, yet, today, this week

Past simple tense= the event is completely finished; V2

Time expressions: yesterday, last week/month/year, ago

Past continuous tense= action started before a moment did not finish at that moment; was/were +V4

Time expressions: when, as, while, yesterday at 9 am, last week on Sunday, three years ago in May

Past perfect tense=action in the past before another action; had+V3

Time expressions: before, after, by the time

Past perfect continuous tense=longer actions in the past before another action; had been+V4

Time expressions: before, after, by the time

Future simple tense=prediction, or when there is no plan or decision; e.g. will/shall +V1

Time expressions: tomorrow, next week/month/year, in a few days/weeks/months

Future continuous tense=a continuous action at a particular moment in the future; will shall+ be V4

Time expressions: tomorrow at 9 am, next week on Sunday, next year in May

Future perfect tense= action in the future before another action; will/shall +have V3

Time expressions: by noon/ 9 am, by the time

Future perfect continuous tense= longer actions in the future before another; will/shall +have been V4

/t/ sound for 'd' or 'ed' followed by voiceless consonants: p, k, th, f, sh, ch, s; e.g. worked

/d/ sound for 'd' or 'ed' followed by voiced consonants: b, v, g, z, j, th, l, m, n, r; e.g. moved

/Id/ sound for 'd' or 'ed' followed by t or d; e.g. started

/s/ sound for 's' or 'es' followed by voiceless consonants: p, t, k, th, f; e.g. works

/z/ sound for 's' or 'es' followed by voiced consonants: b, d, v, g, th, l, m, n, r; e.g. moves

/Iz/ sound for 's' or 'es' followed by s, z, ch, sh, j; e.g. benches

Should= advice, suggestion, future expectation; e.g. You look tired. You should go to bed.

Had better= strong advice with bad consequence (warning); e.g. It might rain. You'd better take an umbrella.

Syllable= a unit of sound where consonants join with vowels; e.g. monosyllabic 'man', polysyllabic 'bak-er'

Phrasal verb= has idiomatic meaning not obvious from the individual words; e.g. fed up (annoyed, digusted)

Idiom= an expression in the usage of a language that is peculiar to itself; e.g. a hot potato (a controversial question or issue that involves unpleasant or dangerous consequences)

Relative clause= dependent clause that provides descriptive information about a noun or noun phrase

Defining relative clauses give us essential information, whereas non-defining relative clauses give us extra information which isn't absolutely necessary so that we separate them by using commas.

Wish + (that)+ V2 = talk about something impossible or very unlikely; e.g. I wish I had a car.

Wish+ (that) + would= talk about somebody who is doing something we don't like; e.g. I wish he would agree.

Wish + (that) +had V3= talk about regrets from the past; e.g. I wish I had studied harder at school.

Wish + to V1= very formal way to express like; e.g. I wish to speak to the headmaster.

Wish + somebody+ something= e.g. I wished him a happy birthday.

If only + V2 ....= to express a strong wish that things could be different; e.g. If only he knew the truth.

If only + would V1= talk about a wish for future; e.g. If only someone would buy the house.

If only + had V3= talk about a wish to change something; e.g. If only Anna had been able to come.

Rules to make plurals: 1. add '-s' e.g. cats 2. add '-es' after s, ss, sh, x or z; e.g. buses 3. change 'f' or 'fe' to 'ves' in case of 'calf, half, hoof, knife, leaf, life, loaf, scarf, self, sheaf, shelf, thief, wife, wolf', e.g. calves 4. change y to 'ies' if y is follows a consonant letter; e.g. cities 5. 'potato' becomes 'potatoes' but 'photo' becomes 'photos' 6. change 'us' to 'i'; e.g. cactus to cacti 7. change 'is' to 'es'; e.g. analysis to analyses 8. change 'on' to 'a'; e.g. criterion to criteria 9. some nouns don't change; e.g. sheep 10. Irregular nouns do not follow specific rules; e.g. child to children

Been to =someone has visited at some time in their life; e.g. He's been to London many times.

Gone to=someone has gone but not returned yet; e.g. He's gone to the bank. He should be back soon.

Noun phrase= two or more words that does the work of a noun; e.g. Vice-President, Editor-in-chief

Chair- Vice; Prime/General- Deputy; Secretary-Joint-Under; Professor- Associate-Assistant; Inspector General- Additional - Deputy-Senior Superintendent- Superintendent- Deputy Superintendent- Inspector-Sub-Assistant

Uses of May and Might: 1. May is used to express permission; e.g. May I come in? 2. May is also used to express possibility (50%); e.g. It may rain. 3. May is also used to express a wish; e.g. May God bless you! 4. May in subordinate clause expresses a purpose; e.g. Farmers use fertilizers so that they may have a rich harvest. 5. Might is V2 of may; e.g. He said that he might stand for election. 6. Might shows less possibility than 'may'; e.g. It might rain.

Must is used to express 100% certainty; e.g. You've had a long journey. You must be tired.

Can't is used to express 0% certainty; e.g. Sorry, I can't do that. It's against the law.

Parts of a sentence: 1. subject (tells who or what the sentence is about) 2. predicate ( tells what the subject does with a verb) 3. Direct object (things being acted upon by the verb) 4. Indirect object (more information about the person or thing towards which the action is directed); Susan bought him the gift. 5. subject complement (modifies subject) e.g. The cat was the laziest creature. 6. object complement (describes object) e.g. I named my son Carson. 7. Adjectival modifiers modify nouns and pronouns, while adverbial modifiers modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. e.g. The blue boat sank.

Used to= refers to things in the past which are no longer true now; e.g. I used to play football.

Collocation= refers to how words go together or form fixed relationships; 1. verb + noun; e.g. accept responsibility 2. adjective + noun; e.g. firm determination 3. verb + adjective + noun; e.g. make steady progress 4. adverb + verb; e.g. strongly recommend 5. adverb+ adjective; e.g. completely useless 6. adverb + adjective+ noun; e.g. totally unacceptable behavior 7. adjective + preposition; e.g. accused of 8. noun + noun; e.g. window frame

Headline= title of the news report; Byline= who wrote the news article; Dateline= where and when the report is written; Lead paragraph= expansion of the headline in one or two sentences; Body paragraph= greater detail of the event in chronological order, often in one, two or three paragraphs

Gerund= a noun formed from a verb ending with '-ing'

Infinitive= the basic form of a verb that usually follows 'to'

Homophones= words with same pronunciation but having different meanings; bury- berry, break- brake

Reporting verbs= words used to report about (refer to) what another person has said, written or done

Say + (that) + clause

Tell + someone + (that) + clause; tell + someone + to V1

Ask + someone + if/question word+ clause; ask + someone + to V1

Advise/encourage/invite/remind/warn + someone + to V1; advice + against + V4

Agree/decide/demand/offer/promise/hope/refuse/threaten + to V1; agree/decide + (that) + clause

Apologize for/ insist on + (to someone) + for V4; apologize + (to someone) + for + noun

Explain + (that) + clause; explain + noun+ to + someone; explain + question word + to V1

Recommend/suggest/ deny + V4; recommend/suggest/deny + (that) + clause

Warn + someone + (not) + to V1; warn + someone+ about+ something

Accuse/blame/congratulate +object+ preposition; e.g. He accused me of taking the money.

Admit/agree/decide/deny/explain/insist/recommend/suggest+ subject + verb; e.g. They recommended we take the bus. Sarah decided the house need cleaning.

Passivization= transformation of a sentence from an active from to a passive form; also called raising